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APR 231 Ch. 9-11

by: Courtney Small

APR 231 Ch. 9-11 APR 231

Courtney Small

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About this Document

Chapters 9-11 that was in the powerpoint discussed in class
Intro public relations
William J. Gozenbach
Class Notes
public relations, Introduction, one week of notes
25 ?




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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter  9:  Public  Opinion  and  Persuasion   Tuesday,  February  16,  2016   3:59  AM   Public  Opinion     •   Attitude  vs.  Opinion   •   Cross  Section  vs.  Social  Process     •   Self-­‐interest   •   Events   •   Opinion  leaders   •   Media       Life  Cycle  of  an  Issue   •   Definition  of  the  Issue   •   Involvement  of  Opinion  Leaders   •   Public  Awareness   •   Government/Regulatory  Involvement   •   Resolution       Early  Ideas   •   Magic  Bullet/Hypodermic   •   Payne  Fund  Study   •   War  of  the  Worlds   •   Hovland:    Psychology  based,  Individual  Difference  Theory   •   Lazarsfeld:    Sociology  based:    Social  Category  Theory,  Opinion  Leaders       Opinion  Leaders   •   10%-­‐12%  of  population   •   Highly  interested   •   Better  informed   •   Early  adopter   •   Good  organizer   •   Formal:    Power  leaders   •   Informal   •   2-­‐Step  Flow   •   Multiple-­‐step  Flow:    Media>OL>Attentive?Inattentive       Role  of  Mass  Media   •   PR  role:    Gandy,  50%  media  from  PR   •   Klapper:    Limited  Effects   •   Agenda-­‐Setting:    Mass  media  not  good  at  telling  us  what  to  think,  very  good  at  telling  us   what  to  think  about:    Cohen   •   Second  level  agenda  setting:  set  agenda  and    set  of  attributes   •   Media  Dependency  Theory:    More  powerful  media:  no    prior  info,  cannot  verify   •   Framing  Theory:    How  facts,  themes,  treatment  frame  story   •   Media  framing;  PR  framing   •   How  audience  frames   •   Iyengar  and  Kinder:    Prime:    How  audience  is  primed  to  think   •   Romney  vs.  Obama  Example   •   Conflict  Theory:  Controversy  can  build  consensus       The  Dominant  View  of  PR   •   Dominant  View:    Gandy:        PR  is  purposeful,  self-­‐interested  communication  (for  client)   •   Bernays:    Engineering  of  consent   •   Use  of  persuasion:    Change/neutralize,  Crystallize  latent,  Retain  favorable   •   Greeks:    ethos  (source  credibility);  logos  (logical  argument);  pathos  (emotional  appeal)       Six  Principles  of  Persuasion  (p.  233):    Robert  Cialdini   •   Liking:    Like  those  who  like  them:    Tupperware   •   Reciprocity:    People  repay  in  kind:    Disabled  American  Vets   •   Social  Proof:    People  follow  the  lead  of  others:    Lost  wallet   •   Consistency:    People  fulfill  written,  public  and  voluntary  commitments:    Sign,  follow-­‐up   on  pledge   •   Authority:    People  defer  to  experts  who  provide  shortcuts  requiring  specialized   information:    NY  Times  expert,  4%  shift   •   Scarcity:    People  value  what’s  scarce:    Beef  shortage,  order  jump  600%       Formulating  Persuasive  Messages   •   Yes-­‐Yes   •   Offer  structured  choices   •   Seek  partial  commitment   •   Ask  for  more,  settle  for  less   •   Findings  p.  236       Findings  on  Persuasion   •   Positive  appeals  generally  more  effective   •   Radio  and  TV  more  persuasive  than  print   •   Strong  emotional  appeals  best  if  audience  has  little  topical  concern  or  interest   •   Fear  appeals  effective  only  if  audience  can  take  action  to  prevent  threats   •   Logical  appeals  are  better  for  educated  audiences   •   Altruism  can  be  a  powerful  motivator   •   Celebrity  spokespersons  vary  in  effectiveness       Factors  in  Persuasive  Comm.   •   Audience  Analysis:    Know  audience;  demos  and  psychographics;  VALS  Ex.  Turkey   •   Survivors/Sustainers;  Belongers;  Achievers   •   Channeling:    match  media  to  audience  Ex.  Achievers/Gourmet  magazine   •   Source  Credibility:  Ethos    Nat.  Cattlemans:    3  Factors   Expertise   Sincerity   Charisma   Problems  with  celebrities:    too  many;  overexposure;  actions  undercut  product;  speak  out,   conflict     •   Appeal  to  self-­‐interest:    Get  in  return:       •   Self-­‐esteem   •   Contribution  to  society   •   Recognition  from  peers,  community   •   Sense  of  belonging   •   Ego  gratification   •   Tax  deduction       Lasswell:    8  basic  appeals  to  self     •   Power   •   Respect   •   Well-­‐being   •   Affection   •   Wealth   •   Skill   •   Enlightenment   •   Physical  and  mental  vitality       Factors  in  Persuasive  Communication   •   Clarity  of  message:    Will  they  understand;  what  do  I  want  them  to  do?   •   Timing  and  context:  Conservation  in  January,  heat  bill   •   Audience  participation:    involve,  trial,  UGC   •   Suggestions  for  action:    Pacific  G&L:    Zero  Interest:    Kit,  Service  bureau,  ZIP   Content  and  Structure  of  Messages   •   Drama:    humanize,  application,  story,  case  study  technique;  BB/BS  Latch  key  kid   •   Statistics:    Caterpillar  truck   •   Surveys  and  polls:    Customer  Satisfaction;  3rd  party   •   Examples:    School  bond  needs   •   Testimonials:    User  of  product   •   Endorsements:    Third  Party;  ADA   •   Emotional  appeals:    Watch  guilt,  fear  arousal;  moderate  fear,  solution;  Humane  Society       Persuasion  and  Manipulation:  Limitations  of  Persuasion   •   Lack  of  message  penetration   •   Competing  messages   •   Self  selection   •   Self  Perception       The  Ethics  of  Persuasion   •   Need  for  ethical  responsibility   •   Ultimately  good  business   •   Heath:    message  is  already  suspect;  unethical  actions  don’t  serve  best  interests  of  the   client       Chapter  10:  Conflict  Management     Thursday,  February  18,  2016   9:24  AM   Strategic  Conflict  Management   •   Sharp  disagreement  or  collision  of  interests   •   Strategic  Conflict  Management:  (CM)    To  influence  the  course  of  conflicts  to  the  benefit   of  the  organization  and,  when  possible,  to  the  benefit  of  the  organization’s  many   constituents   •   Key  Components   •   Strategic:    for  the  purpose  of  achieving  particular  objectives   •   Management:    planned,  deliberate  action   •   Competition:    striving  for  the  same  object,  position  or  prize  as  others   •   Conflict:    Sharp  disagreements  or  opposition  resulting  in  a  direct,  overt  threat  of  attack   from  another  entity       Role  of  PR  in  CM   •   CM  often  occurs  when  a  business  or  industry  contends  with  government  regulators  or   activist  groups     •   Outside  groups  use  PR  to  make  case  against  company/industry   •   Try  to  catch  early  and  reduce  damages;  many  times  smolder  and  grow   •   Usually  not  clear  cut  in  solution   •   PR  has  to  advocate  for  company/industry       It  Depends:    A  System  for  Managing  CM   •   PR  determines  stance  to  take  toward  publics   •   Stance  determines  strategy   •   Stance-­‐driven  approach:  “It  Depends”   •   Stance  taken  toward  publics  “depends”  on  factors,  change  with  changing  circumstances       It  Depends…Managing  Conflict  cont.   The  Threat  Appraisal  Model     It  Depends:  Contingency  Theory s    2  Basic  Principles   •   Two  principles  form  the  basis  of  what  is  called  Contingency  Theory   •   First:    many  factors  determine  the  stance  or  position  of  an  organization  when  it  comes   to  dealing  with  conflict  and  perceived  threats   •   Second:    The  PR  stance  for  dealing  with  a  particular  audience  or  public  can  change  as   events  unfold       IT  Depends:    A  Matrix  of  Contingency  Fact   •   PR  position  is  contingent  on  many  factors  that  PR  takes  into  account   •   External  and  Internal  Variables       5  External  Variables   •   Example:    McDonald’s  and  Transfats   •   External  Threats:    New  competition,  condition   •   Industry-­‐specific  environment:    New  industry  standards   •   General  political-­‐social  environment:    Political  change,  social  change   •   External  public  characteristics:    Audience  change,  ex.  move  liberal  to  conservative   •   Issue  under  consideration:    nature  of  issues  change       6  Internal  Variables   •   Example:    Toyota   •   General  corporate/organizational  characteristics:    Company  posture   •   Characteristics  of  the  PR  department:    Authority  level   •   Top  management  characteristics:    Aggressive,  comply   •   Internal  threats:    weak  financial  position   •   Personality  characteristics  of  internal,  involved  persons   •   Relationship  characteristics:    Relationship  of  key  players       Contingency  Continuum   •   Attitudes  of  management  and  PR  are  factors  that  may  move  the  organization’s  stance   •   Range  of  responses  can  be  shown  on  a  continuum  from  pure  advocacy  to  pure   accommodation   •   Shows  the  stance  of  an  organization  toward  public  at  give  time  and  shows  the   dynamism  of  CM   •   Figure  10.3       Contingency  Continuum   •   Pure  Advocacy   •   Competing  Litigation   •   Public  Relations   •   Arguing   •   Competition   •   Contending   •   Compromising   •   Avoiding   •   Cooperation   •   Collaborating   •   Negotiation   •   Compromise   •   Capitulation   •   Apology  and  Restitution   •   Pure  Accommodation       The  Conflict  Management  Life  Cycle  cont.     Processes  for  Managing  the  Life  Cycle   •   CM  is  challenge   •   Systematic  processes  provide  guidance  and  structure   •   Issues  Management   •   Risk  Communication   •   Crisis  Management   •   Reputation  Management       Issues  Management   •   Proactive  and  systematic  approach   •   Predict  problems   •   Anticipate  threats   •   Minimize  surprises   •   Resolve  issues   •   Prevent  crises       Issue  Life  Cycle:    Ex.  Drug  Issue   •   Problem  definition:    Ex.  Len  Bias   •   Involvement  of  Opinion  Leaders:    Ex.  Jessie  Jackson   •   Public  Awareness:    2/3  MIP   •   Government  Policy/Regulation:    Ex.  Drug  testing,  tougher  laws   •   Resolution:    Say  solved,  move  to  other  issue       Public  Opinion       Chase  and  Jones:    Issues  Management  Process   •   Issue  identification   •   Issue  analysis   •   Strategy  options   •   Action  plan   •   Evaluation       Conflict  Positioning  and  Risk  Communication   •   Conflict  Positioning:    Any  verbal  or  written  exchange  that  attempts  to  communicate   information  that  positions  the  organization  favorably  regarding  competition  or  an   anticipated  conflict   •   Risk  Communication:    Verbal  or  written  exchange  that  attempts  to  communicate   information  regarding  risk  to  public  health  and  safety  and  the  environment   •   Risk  Communication:    Often  a  PR  professional  can  engage  in  communication  that  may   reduce  the  risk  for  affected  publics  and  for  his  or  her  employer   •   Ex.:    Public  health,  safety,  environment:    hotel  signs  for  ocean  undertow;  recalls;  medical   health  warnings       Crisis  Management   •   Ex.  Amtrak,  Batman  Shootings   •   Situation  characterized  by     o   Surprise   o   High  threat  to  important  values   o   Short  decision  time       Crisis  Figures   •   39%    unexpected;  16%  smoldering   •   Management  causes  50%  of  crises;  employees  32%   •   Triggers:  financial  irregularities;  unethical  behavior;  executive  misconduct   •   89%  of  Fortune  500  CEOs:    crisis  inevitable   •   50%  admit  they  have  no  plan       How  to  communicate  in  crisis   •   Put  public  first   •   Take  responsibility  for  solving   •   Be  honest   •   Never  “no  comment”   •   Single  spokesperson   •   Central  info  center   •   Constant  flow  of  info   •   Media  needs  and  deadlines   •   Be  accessible   •   Monitor  coverage   •   Communicate  with  key  publics       Responses  to  Crisis   •   Attack  accuser:    other’s  fault   •   Denial:    no  crisis   •   Excuse:    natural  disaster   •   Justification:    customer  misuse   •   Ingratiation:    give  money   •   Corrective  action:    Fix  it;  stop  from  happening  again   •   Full  apology       Factors  Influencing  Action   •   Management  moral  conviction,  public  is  wrong   •   Neutrality:    Stay  neutral  when  2  publics  at  opposite  sides   •   Legal  constraints:   •   Regulatory  constraints:  FTC,  SEC   •   Senior  management:    no  accommodation  stance   •   Conflict  among  departments  regarding  strategy  to  take       Reputation  Management   •   Track  record  of  the  organization  in  the  public’s  mind   •   3  foundations   •   Economic  performance   •   Social  responsiveness   •   Ability  to  deliver  valuable  outcomes  to  stakeholders   •   Reputation  audit:    assess  and  monitor   •   “Most  Admired  Companies”   •   Reputation  Quotient:    Reputation  Institute  and  Harris  Interactive   •   Media  Reputation  Index  (MRI);    Delahaye  Medialink   •   Warren  Buffett  Dealing  with  Crisis:    “Get  it  right;  Get  it  fast;  Get  it  out;  Get  it  over”   •   Burson-­‐Marsteller:    Crisis  takes  about  3  years  to  repair  on  average   •   To  recover  reputation   •   #1:    Quick  disclose,  then   •   Make  progress/recovery  visible   •   Analyze  what  went  wrong   •   Improve  governance  structure   •   Make  CEO,  leadership  accessible  to  media   •   Fire  employees  involved  with  problem   •   Commit  to  high  citizenship  standards   •   Carefully  review  ethics  policies   •   Hire  outside  auditors  for  internal  audits   •   Issue  an  apology  from  the  CEO   •   déjà  vu  -­‐-­‐  All  over  again   Chapter  11:  The  Audience-­‐  How  to  Reach  It   Tuesday,  February  23,  2016   9:31  AM   The  Nature  of  the  Audience   •   Complex  groups   •   Diversity:    culture,  ethnic,  religion,  economic   •   International  audience   •   ID  with  computer   •   Aggregate:    census,  stat.  Abstracts   •   Individual:    mortgage,  Winn  Dixie,  online,  cookie   •   Controlled  media,  including  Internet   •   Lists,  Zip  Codes   •   Claritas:    62  Lifestyle  clusters   •   Key:  Age,  Gender,  Race       Ethnic   •   2010   •   Anglo:    64%   •   Hispanic:    16%   •   Black:    13%   •   Asian:    5%   •   Native:    2.0%   •   2050   •   Anglo:    45.5%   •   Hispanic:    29.5%   •   Black:    14.5%   •   Asian:    9%   •   Native:    1.5%       Hispanics   •   54  million  2013,  2050  130    million   •   20  nations,  diverse  group   •   Strong  Media:    2,500  US  outlets   •   1200  print   •   1000  TV  and  radio   •   200  Internet  only   •   20  AP-­‐style  wire  services  and  news  syndicates   •   Radio:    Listen  13%  more  than  general  population   •   TV:    Univision,  Telemundo   •   91%  access  Spanish  TV  at  home   •   Youth:    strong  use  of  Internet       African  American   •   43  million  in  2012,  66  million  in  2050   •   Not  necessarily  homogeneous:    Hispanic/Caribbean   •   2.5  million  $75K+,  BUPPIE   •   Urban  Market:    Trend  and  40%  live  in  10  largest  US  cities   •   Media:    175  black  newspapers;  BET,  Johnson  Publications  (Ebony,  Essence)       Asian  American   •   18  million  in  2012,  2050  41  million   •   Over  25,  50%  bachelor’s  degree,  US  28%   •   Median  household  $66,000   •   400  print,  136  TV,  140  radio,  550  digital   •   17  major  Asian  groups  (Chinese  22%,  Indian  19%),  Filipino  18%,  Vietnamese  11%       Understanding  Ethnic  Values   •   Team  understand  customs  and  values   •   Respond  better  to  culturally  relevant  messages   •   Extremely  loyal   •   Use  primary  language   •   Use  spokespersons  that  represent  audience   •   Gale  Directory:    48  languages  other  than  English       Age:    Youth  and  Young  Adults   •   Generation  Y  (GY):    Born  1980-­‐1995   •   Generation  X  (GX):    Born  between  1965  and  1980   •   Generation  Y   •   20%  of  US  Population   •   Parent  influence   •   Trust  in  info  from  relationships   •   Savy  about  unfiltered  info   •   15-­‐24:    $350  billion  purchasing  power   •   Spend  1/3  of  life  on  Internet       Age:    Boomers   •   Born  between  1946  and  1964   •   78  million,  24%  of  US  population   •   $3  trillion  purchasing  power,  2015  control  60%  of  US  net  worth   •   Concern  about  health,  aging   •   Active,  socially  conscious       Age:    Seniors   •   65  and  older   •   36.3  million  65  and  older;  12%  of  US  population   •   Avoid  old  stereotypes   •   65-­‐74  More  discretionary  income  than  any  group;  70%  of  assets   •   Own  homes,  strong  assets   •   80%  of  commercial  vacation  travel   •   Compared  to  average  adult,  30%  TV  time,  25%  more  newspaper  time   •   55+    Facebook’s  fastest  growth  area       Senior  Characteristics   •   Less  easily  convinced   •   Vote  in  greater  numbers   •   Source  of  volunteer   •   Very  health-­‐conscious       Women   •   Make  80%  of  household  purchase  decisions   •   Stronger  users  of  social  media  than  men   •   25-­‐54:    super  consumers,  new  media   •   Supermoms:    5%  of  moms,  Opinion  Leaders,  WOM,  Bloggers   •   All  adult  women:    50%  of  US  workforce       Gay/Lesbian   •   9-­‐16  million  in  US,  very  conservative   •   Higher  incomes,  education,  $750  million  purchasing  power   •   Targeted  media:    Out,  Advocate   •   Mainstream:    Modern  Family,  Brokeback  Mountain   •   Integrating  into  advertising       US  Religious  Groups   •   Catholics:  70  million,  21%;  4th  largest  Catholic  nation  in  the  world   •   Southern  Baptist:  16  million,  5%   •   Methodists:    8  million,  2.5%   •   Jewish:    6.5  million,  2%   •   Muslim:    6  million,  2%   •   Evangelical  Christian  Right:    hard  to  measure:  conservative,  family  values,  school  prayer,   anti-­‐abortion   •   Disabled:    Americans  with  Disabilities  Act  (ADA)       Disability  Community   •   60  million  people  in  US   •   Americans  with  Disabilities  Act  (ADA)   •   Language:      Physically  disabled,  R  word   •   Services:    large  point  size,  ASL  available,  ADA  accommodations  (ramp,  doors)    


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