APR 231 Ch. 9-11
APR 231 Ch. 9-11 APR 231
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Courtney Small on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APR 231 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by William J. Gozenbach in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Intro public relations in Advertising at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Chapter 9: Public Opinion and Persuasion Tuesday, February 16, 2016 3:59 AM Public Opinion • Attitude vs. Opinion • Cross Section vs. Social Process • Self-‐interest • Events • Opinion leaders • Media Life Cycle of an Issue • Definition of the Issue • Involvement of Opinion Leaders • Public Awareness • Government/Regulatory Involvement • Resolution Early Ideas • Magic Bullet/Hypodermic • Payne Fund Study • War of the Worlds • Hovland: Psychology based, Individual Difference Theory • Lazarsfeld: Sociology based: Social Category Theory, Opinion Leaders Opinion Leaders • 10%-‐12% of population • Highly interested • Better informed • Early adopter • Good organizer • Formal: Power leaders • Informal • 2-‐Step Flow • Multiple-‐step Flow: Media>OL>Attentive?Inattentive Role of Mass Media • PR role: Gandy, 50% media from PR • Klapper: Limited Effects • Agenda-‐Setting: Mass media not good at telling us what to think, very good at telling us what to think about: Cohen • Second level agenda setting: set agenda and set of attributes • Media Dependency Theory: More powerful media: no prior info, cannot verify • Framing Theory: How facts, themes, treatment frame story • Media framing; PR framing • How audience frames • Iyengar and Kinder: Prime: How audience is primed to think • Romney vs. Obama Example • Conflict Theory: Controversy can build consensus The Dominant View of PR • Dominant View: Gandy: PR is purposeful, self-‐interested communication (for client) • Bernays: Engineering of consent • Use of persuasion: Change/neutralize, Crystallize latent, Retain favorable • Greeks: ethos (source credibility); logos (logical argument); pathos (emotional appeal) Six Principles of Persuasion (p. 233): Robert Cialdini • Liking: Like those who like them: Tupperware • Reciprocity: People repay in kind: Disabled American Vets • Social Proof: People follow the lead of others: Lost wallet • Consistency: People fulfill written, public and voluntary commitments: Sign, follow-‐up on pledge • Authority: People defer to experts who provide shortcuts requiring specialized information: NY Times expert, 4% shift • Scarcity: People value what’s scarce: Beef shortage, order jump 600% Formulating Persuasive Messages • Yes-‐Yes • Offer structured choices • Seek partial commitment • Ask for more, settle for less • Findings p. 236 Findings on Persuasion • Positive appeals generally more effective • Radio and TV more persuasive than print • Strong emotional appeals best if audience has little topical concern or interest • Fear appeals effective only if audience can take action to prevent threats • Logical appeals are better for educated audiences • Altruism can be a powerful motivator • Celebrity spokespersons vary in effectiveness Factors in Persuasive Comm. • Audience Analysis: Know audience; demos and psychographics; VALS Ex. Turkey • Survivors/Sustainers; Belongers; Achievers • Channeling: match media to audience Ex. Achievers/Gourmet magazine • Source Credibility: Ethos Nat. Cattlemans: 3 Factors Expertise Sincerity Charisma Problems with celebrities: too many; overexposure; actions undercut product; speak out, conflict • Appeal to self-‐interest: Get in return: • Self-‐esteem • Contribution to society • Recognition from peers, community • Sense of belonging • Ego gratification • Tax deduction Lasswell: 8 basic appeals to self • Power • Respect • Well-‐being • Affection • Wealth • Skill • Enlightenment • Physical and mental vitality Factors in Persuasive Communication • Clarity of message: Will they understand; what do I want them to do? • Timing and context: Conservation in January, heat bill • Audience participation: involve, trial, UGC • Suggestions for action: Pacific G&L: Zero Interest: Kit, Service bureau, ZIP Content and Structure of Messages • Drama: humanize, application, story, case study technique; BB/BS Latch key kid • Statistics: Caterpillar truck • Surveys and polls: Customer Satisfaction; 3rd party • Examples: School bond needs • Testimonials: User of product • Endorsements: Third Party; ADA • Emotional appeals: Watch guilt, fear arousal; moderate fear, solution; Humane Society Persuasion and Manipulation: Limitations of Persuasion • Lack of message penetration • Competing messages • Self selection • Self Perception The Ethics of Persuasion • Need for ethical responsibility • Ultimately good business • Heath: message is already suspect; unethical actions don’t serve best interests of the client Chapter 10: Conflict Management Thursday, February 18, 2016 9:24 AM Strategic Conflict Management • Sharp disagreement or collision of interests • Strategic Conflict Management: (CM) To influence the course of conflicts to the benefit of the organization and, when possible, to the benefit of the organization’s many constituents • Key Components • Strategic: for the purpose of achieving particular objectives • Management: planned, deliberate action • Competition: striving for the same object, position or prize as others • Conflict: Sharp disagreements or opposition resulting in a direct, overt threat of attack from another entity Role of PR in CM • CM often occurs when a business or industry contends with government regulators or activist groups • Outside groups use PR to make case against company/industry • Try to catch early and reduce damages; many times smolder and grow • Usually not clear cut in solution • PR has to advocate for company/industry It Depends: A System for Managing CM • PR determines stance to take toward publics • Stance determines strategy • Stance-‐driven approach: “It Depends” • Stance taken toward publics “depends” on factors, change with changing circumstances It Depends…Managing Conflict cont. The Threat Appraisal Model It Depends: Contingency Theory s 2 Basic Principles • Two principles form the basis of what is called Contingency Theory • First: many factors determine the stance or position of an organization when it comes to dealing with conflict and perceived threats • Second: The PR stance for dealing with a particular audience or public can change as events unfold IT Depends: A Matrix of Contingency Fact • PR position is contingent on many factors that PR takes into account • External and Internal Variables 5 External Variables • Example: McDonald’s and Transfats • External Threats: New competition, condition • Industry-‐specific environment: New industry standards • General political-‐social environment: Political change, social change • External public characteristics: Audience change, ex. move liberal to conservative • Issue under consideration: nature of issues change 6 Internal Variables • Example: Toyota • General corporate/organizational characteristics: Company posture • Characteristics of the PR department: Authority level • Top management characteristics: Aggressive, comply • Internal threats: weak financial position • Personality characteristics of internal, involved persons • Relationship characteristics: Relationship of key players Contingency Continuum • Attitudes of management and PR are factors that may move the organization’s stance • Range of responses can be shown on a continuum from pure advocacy to pure accommodation • Shows the stance of an organization toward public at give time and shows the dynamism of CM • Figure 10.3 Contingency Continuum • Pure Advocacy • Competing Litigation • Public Relations • Arguing • Competition • Contending • Compromising • Avoiding • Cooperation • Collaborating • Negotiation • Compromise • Capitulation • Apology and Restitution • Pure Accommodation The Conflict Management Life Cycle cont. Processes for Managing the Life Cycle • CM is challenge • Systematic processes provide guidance and structure • Issues Management • Risk Communication • Crisis Management • Reputation Management Issues Management • Proactive and systematic approach • Predict problems • Anticipate threats • Minimize surprises • Resolve issues • Prevent crises Issue Life Cycle: Ex. Drug Issue • Problem definition: Ex. Len Bias • Involvement of Opinion Leaders: Ex. Jessie Jackson • Public Awareness: 2/3 MIP • Government Policy/Regulation: Ex. Drug testing, tougher laws • Resolution: Say solved, move to other issue Public Opinion Chase and Jones: Issues Management Process • Issue identification • Issue analysis • Strategy options • Action plan • Evaluation Conflict Positioning and Risk Communication • Conflict Positioning: Any verbal or written exchange that attempts to communicate information that positions the organization favorably regarding competition or an anticipated conflict • Risk Communication: Verbal or written exchange that attempts to communicate information regarding risk to public health and safety and the environment • Risk Communication: Often a PR professional can engage in communication that may reduce the risk for affected publics and for his or her employer • Ex.: Public health, safety, environment: hotel signs for ocean undertow; recalls; medical health warnings Crisis Management • Ex. Amtrak, Batman Shootings • Situation characterized by o Surprise o High threat to important values o Short decision time Crisis Figures • 39% unexpected; 16% smoldering • Management causes 50% of crises; employees 32% • Triggers: financial irregularities; unethical behavior; executive misconduct • 89% of Fortune 500 CEOs: crisis inevitable • 50% admit they have no plan How to communicate in crisis • Put public first • Take responsibility for solving • Be honest • Never “no comment” • Single spokesperson • Central info center • Constant flow of info • Media needs and deadlines • Be accessible • Monitor coverage • Communicate with key publics Responses to Crisis • Attack accuser: other’s fault • Denial: no crisis • Excuse: natural disaster • Justification: customer misuse • Ingratiation: give money • Corrective action: Fix it; stop from happening again • Full apology Factors Influencing Action • Management moral conviction, public is wrong • Neutrality: Stay neutral when 2 publics at opposite sides • Legal constraints: • Regulatory constraints: FTC, SEC • Senior management: no accommodation stance • Conflict among departments regarding strategy to take Reputation Management • Track record of the organization in the public’s mind • 3 foundations • Economic performance • Social responsiveness • Ability to deliver valuable outcomes to stakeholders • Reputation audit: assess and monitor • “Most Admired Companies” • Reputation Quotient: Reputation Institute and Harris Interactive • Media Reputation Index (MRI); Delahaye Medialink • Warren Buffett Dealing with Crisis: “Get it right; Get it fast; Get it out; Get it over” • Burson-‐Marsteller: Crisis takes about 3 years to repair on average • To recover reputation • #1: Quick disclose, then • Make progress/recovery visible • Analyze what went wrong • Improve governance structure • Make CEO, leadership accessible to media • Fire employees involved with problem • Commit to high citizenship standards • Carefully review ethics policies • Hire outside auditors for internal audits • Issue an apology from the CEO • déjà vu -‐-‐ All over again Chapter 11: The Audience-‐ How to Reach It Tuesday, February 23, 2016 9:31 AM The Nature of the Audience • Complex groups • Diversity: culture, ethnic, religion, economic • International audience • ID with computer • Aggregate: census, stat. Abstracts • Individual: mortgage, Winn Dixie, online, cookie • Controlled media, including Internet • Lists, Zip Codes • Claritas: 62 Lifestyle clusters • Key: Age, Gender, Race Ethnic • 2010 • Anglo: 64% • Hispanic: 16% • Black: 13% • Asian: 5% • Native: 2.0% • 2050 • Anglo: 45.5% • Hispanic: 29.5% • Black: 14.5% • Asian: 9% • Native: 1.5% Hispanics • 54 million 2013, 2050 130 million • 20 nations, diverse group • Strong Media: 2,500 US outlets • 1200 print • 1000 TV and radio • 200 Internet only • 20 AP-‐style wire services and news syndicates • Radio: Listen 13% more than general population • TV: Univision, Telemundo • 91% access Spanish TV at home • Youth: strong use of Internet African American • 43 million in 2012, 66 million in 2050 • Not necessarily homogeneous: Hispanic/Caribbean • 2.5 million $75K+, BUPPIE • Urban Market: Trend and 40% live in 10 largest US cities • Media: 175 black newspapers; BET, Johnson Publications (Ebony, Essence) Asian American • 18 million in 2012, 2050 41 million • Over 25, 50% bachelor’s degree, US 28% • Median household $66,000 • 400 print, 136 TV, 140 radio, 550 digital • 17 major Asian groups (Chinese 22%, Indian 19%), Filipino 18%, Vietnamese 11% Understanding Ethnic Values • Team understand customs and values • Respond better to culturally relevant messages • Extremely loyal • Use primary language • Use spokespersons that represent audience • Gale Directory: 48 languages other than English Age: Youth and Young Adults • Generation Y (GY): Born 1980-‐1995 • Generation X (GX): Born between 1965 and 1980 • Generation Y • 20% of US Population • Parent influence • Trust in info from relationships • Savy about unfiltered info • 15-‐24: $350 billion purchasing power • Spend 1/3 of life on Internet Age: Boomers • Born between 1946 and 1964 • 78 million, 24% of US population • $3 trillion purchasing power, 2015 control 60% of US net worth • Concern about health, aging • Active, socially conscious Age: Seniors • 65 and older • 36.3 million 65 and older; 12% of US population • Avoid old stereotypes • 65-‐74 More discretionary income than any group; 70% of assets • Own homes, strong assets • 80% of commercial vacation travel • Compared to average adult, 30% TV time, 25% more newspaper time • 55+ Facebook’s fastest growth area Senior Characteristics • Less easily convinced • Vote in greater numbers • Source of volunteer • Very health-‐conscious Women • Make 80% of household purchase decisions • Stronger users of social media than men • 25-‐54: super consumers, new media • Supermoms: 5% of moms, Opinion Leaders, WOM, Bloggers • All adult women: 50% of US workforce Gay/Lesbian • 9-‐16 million in US, very conservative • Higher incomes, education, $750 million purchasing power • Targeted media: Out, Advocate • Mainstream: Modern Family, Brokeback Mountain • Integrating into advertising US Religious Groups • Catholics: 70 million, 21%; 4th largest Catholic nation in the world • Southern Baptist: 16 million, 5% • Methodists: 8 million, 2.5% • Jewish: 6.5 million, 2% • Muslim: 6 million, 2% • Evangelical Christian Right: hard to measure: conservative, family values, school prayer, anti-‐abortion • Disabled: Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Disability Community • 60 million people in US • Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) • Language: Physically disabled, R word • Services: large point size, ASL available, ADA accommodations (ramp, doors)
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