Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 Study Guide
Developmental Psychology Chapter 1 Study Guide
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 175 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Study Guide Ch1 Developmental Psychology 1. Define development. Development is the pattern of movement or change that begins at conception and continues through the human life span. 2. Describe how the traditional approach to development differs from the lifespan approach. Can you draw a continuous line graph that would illustrate the contrast in the two approaches? (I know this will be difficult to submit to me—just see if you can do it! You could describe what your lines look like to me in words.) The traditional approach to studying development focuses on the vast changes from birth to adolescence, very little change in adulthood, and then finally a decline during old age. The life span approach focuses on the changes during adulthood and childhood. Traditional Lifespan 3. Contrast/describe life span and life expectancy. What is the current life span and life expectancy of a human? The maximum life span is currently 122 years. The life span can only be changed if a person out lives the age of 122. The life expectancy is the average age that is predicted for a person to live based on the year they were born. In 2010 the life expectancy in the United States was 78 years old. 4. Name and describe the 3 types of influences on our development. Normative agegraded influences These influences occur during age milestones such as beginning school, puberty, menopause, and retirement. Both sociocultural, environmental, and biological processes contribute. Normative historygraded influences Major events can also influence development. One example is the integration of computers, cell phones, and other technology advances during the 1990’s. This is only one example. Another part of normative historical change includes long term changes in the genetic and cultural make up of a population. Normative live events These don’t occur in everyone’s life. They are unusual occurrences that have a major impact on one’s life. An example of this would be getting pregnant at a young age. 5. Define (in your own words) biological processes, cognitive processes, and socioemotional processes. Give a real life example of each. Biological Process This involves the changes in one’s physical nature. Example As you age, you get taller. Cognitive process This process involved the changes in someone’s thoughts, intelligence, and language. Example When a child begins school they expand their vocabulary. Socioemotional Process This is when an individual’s relationships with others change and they experience change in emotion and personality. Example When a child begins puberty their emotions change. 6. How many Periods of Development are most widely accepted? There are eight periods of development. Kortney Keane (Prenatal, infancy, early childhood, middle and late childhood, adolescence, early adulthood, middle adulthood, and late adulthood) 7. Briefly convey your understanding of the Nature vs. Nurture controversy. Which do you consider more important in your development? Nature is what you inherit from your parents. Nurturing is what you learn from your environmental experiences. I consider nurturing to be more important to development. 8. Study the four types of age. Identify each of the 4 in the following scenario: ____chronological A 55 year old woman ____psychological takes a new position as CEO with many demands ____social She has to relocate to a new state and has not had time to make any real friends ___biological She is suffering from frequent headaches, probably a result of the stress. 9. What are the two main psychoanalytic theories discussed in your text? Freud’s Theory and Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory. 10. Establish a connection or comparison between the following four words: psychoanalytic, cognitive, conscious, unconscious. Psychoanalytic theories suggest that development occurs in the unconscious mind. Cognitive processes suggest that development happens in the conscious mind. Changes in an individual thoughts, intelligence, and language occur in cognitive processes. 11. What are the three cognitive theories discussed in your text? Piaget’s Cognitive Development Theory, Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Cognitive Theory, Vandura’s Social Cognitive Theory. 12. Look at Figure 1.8. List the four stages of Piaget’s theory. Sensorimotor Stage, Preoperational Stage, Concrete Operational Stage, Formal Operational Stage. 13. Explain Skinner’s Operant Conditioning theory. Give a real life example. (Preferably one you’ve thought of and not the author of our text.) Skinner’s theory explains how when a child does something good, rewarding them will encourage them to do it again. Then when a child does something bad, punishing them will discourage them from doing it again. For example, if a child does something good, giving them a sticker will encourage them to continue that behavior. Another example is when a child has bad behavior, putting them in time out will discouraging them from repeating the action. 14. Explain what is meant by eclectic theoretical orientation. This does not follow any theoretical approach but instead presents the best features of each theory. 15. Read the section on Experimental Research. Explain, in your own words, the difference between the independent variable and the dependent variable. An independent variable is a variable that can be changed independently to determine an effect. A dependent variable is something that can change in response to independent variables changing. 16. Differentiate between the control group and the experimental group in an experiment. The control group is just like the experimental group except with one independent factor. Kortney Keane 17. The American Psychological Association has addressed four important guidelines when doing research. List them. Informed consent, Confidentiality, Debriefing, and Deception. 18. Albert Bandura is the leading social cognitive theorist. He says we learn through watching others and imitating them. Give me an example of something you’ve learned by watching someone else. Who did you imitate? What specific behavior did you imitate? What did you learn? (3 pts.) I took dance class from the time I was 3 to 18. I learned technique, like how to point my toes and turn out my feet, from my teachers. When they taught us a routine I had to imitate their movement. From taking dance lessons, I learned to pay attention to detail. 19. Turn back to pg. 14. What does research tell us about happiness and age? Complete Fig. 1.5 and discuss your results. Do you agree? How satisfied are you with life at this point? (3 pts.) As you age you become happier. I am satisfied with life at this point. I agree with my results. I think that I am at a stressful age. I have school work, a job, a car payment, student loan payments, ect. 20. Study figure 1.13. Identify the experimental group, control group, independent variable, and the dependent variable in the following experiment: (4 pts.) A physical trainer wants to determine if taking a particular supplement called BFS will increase the strength of the people who take it. The experimental group is the group taking the supplement. The control group is the group not taking the supplement. The independent variable s the supplement The dependent variable is the strength of the participants.
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