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Chapter 2 Study Guide

by: Kortney Keane

Chapter 2 Study Guide

Marketplace > Iowa Central Community College > > Chapter 2 Study Guide
Kortney Keane
GPA 3.8

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Chapter two study guide.
Developmental Psychology
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Chapter 2 1.  What are some basic ideas about human development proposed by evolutionary psychology? Humans have and extended childhood period to develop their large brains. They need more time  to grow and learn the complex lifestyle humans have today. Another idea is that many of our  evolved psychologic mechanisms are domain­specific. This means that the mechanisms only  apply to a specific part of a person’s psychological make­up. So basically, we focus on one thing at a time. 2.  Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype. A genotype is the genes you get that you can’t see. Examples are longevity and susceptibility  genes. Phenotypes are genes you get that you can see. Examples of a phenotype are your height  and weight. 3.  Explain why it is the father’s sperm that determines the sex of the baby. The male has an X and Y chromosome. The female only has two X chromosomes. The female  can’t pass on a Y chromosome if she doesn’t have one. 4.  Describe why males are more likely to show the signs of an X­linked disorder, and name one. Males only have one X chromosome so if there is something wrong on theirs then they don’t  have another one to counter the defect. 5.  Explain the purposes of genetic counseling. The purpose is to inform at­risk individuals about the relevant genetic, biological and  environmental risk factors related to the individuals inherited syndrome or cancer. 6.  Rachel has always enjoyed sports, especially swimming. Now that she is a parent, she takes  her daughter to the pool frequently, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy swimming. How do  behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment?  Explain. (Passive, evocative, or active) This is an example of Passive genotype­environment. Rachel enjoyed swimming in her life so  she frequently exposes her daughter to swimming. Her daughter is most likely to enjoy  swimming like her mother and probably be good at it.  7.  People seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup. For example,  athletic and coordinated kids choose to play baseball and like to ride bikes. This is an example of a(n): (passive, evocative, or active). When children seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup it’s an  example of active. They pick environments that make them feel most comfortable. 8.  List three developmental characteristics or events from each of the germinal, embryonic, and  fetal periods of prenatal development. Germinal­ Takes place in the first two weeks. Includes the creation of the fertilized egg, cell  division, and the attachment of the multicellular organism to the uterine wall. Embryonic­ Occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. The rate of cell differentiation  intensifies, support systems for cells form, and organs develop. Fetal­ Lasts about 7 months. At the beginning of the fetal period the fetus can move their arms,  legs, fingers, and toes. In the middle of the fetal period the fetus can suck its thumb and their  hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows are present. At the end of the fetal period the fetus responds to  sounds and gains immunities from its mother. 9. Carefully read the section The Brain (pg. 51). Explain neurogenesis in your own words. When  does it begin to take place? Kortney Keane th Neurogenesis begins during the 5  week after conception and continues until birth. Neurogenesis is the production of new neurons. 10.  Define a teratogen, and identify at least three teratogens. A teratogen is something that can potentially cause a birth defect or can negatively influence  cognitive or behavioral outcomes. Some examples include drugs, incompatible blood types, and  environmental pollutants. 11.  List three paternal factors that can influence prenatal development. Nutrition, age, and emotional stages. 12.  List and describe the three main stages of birth. The first stage is when uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart. They cause the woman’s  cervix to open. The contractions come closer together usually every two to five minutes. The  contractions also become more intense. At the end of the first stage the contractions dilate the  cervix to about 10cm. The second stage is then the baby’s head starts to move through the cervix  and into the birth canal. This stage is over when the baby is completely out of the mother’s body. The final stage is called the afterbirth. This stage is when the placenta umbilical cord, and other  membranes are detached and expelled. This is the shortest stage lasting only a few minutes. 13.  Explain the APGAR scale. The Apgar scale is used to assess the health of the child at one and five minutes after birth. 14.  Define low­birth­weight, very low birthweight, and extremely low birthweight.  Low birth weight­ less than 5 pounds at birth. Very low birthweight­ Less than 3 pounds.  Extremely low birthweight­ Under 2 pounds. 15. Relate pre­term low­birthweight infants and cognitive development. 16.  Distinguish between pre­term, extremely pre­term and very pre­term according to your text.  17.  In 1989, 23­year­old Jennifer Johnson was found guilty of delivering a controlled substance  to a minor; the minor was her baby who was born a cocaine addict. Do you think that mothers  who use drugs during pregnancy should face criminal prosecution or incarceration? Why or why  not? What should be considered here?   (3 pts.) 18.  Considering what you learned in question 9, why is it essential that a woman take good  healthy care of herself early in pregnancy….. and even before pregnancy? Consider that some  women don’t know for sure they’re pregnant until 6, 7, 8 or more weeks. What danger is there in  this…. In light of the research on early brain development?  (3 pts.) 19.  In March of 2002, a child custody judge in Utica, New York, ruled that a mother must quit  smoking or lose visitation rights to her child. The judge said the mother could not smoke in her  home or car, whether the child was present or not. The ruling was intended to guarantee a  smoke­free environment for the child. Consider the pros and cons of the ruling.  (3 pts.) 20. Reread pg. 41 on Genetic Principles. Read the following scenario and decide what the  chances are this couple will have a child with freckles? (Freckles a dominant trait.)  Dad has one  dominant gene for freckles and mom does not have freckles. (3 pts.) Kortney Keane


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