Chapter 2 Study Guide
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kortney Keane on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to at Iowa Central Community College taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Kortney Keane Developmental Psychology Study Guide Chapter 2 1. What are some basic ideas about human development proposed by evolutionary psychology? Humans have and extended childhood period to develop their large brains. They need more time to grow and learn the complex lifestyle humans have today. Another idea is that many of our evolved psychologic mechanisms are domainspecific. This means that the mechanisms only apply to a specific part of a person’s psychological makeup. So basically, we focus on one thing at a time. 2. Explain the difference between genotype and phenotype. A genotype is the genes you get that you can’t see. Examples are longevity and susceptibility genes. Phenotypes are genes you get that you can see. Examples of a phenotype are your height and weight. 3. Explain why it is the father’s sperm that determines the sex of the baby. The male has an X and Y chromosome. The female only has two X chromosomes. The female can’t pass on a Y chromosome if she doesn’t have one. 4. Describe why males are more likely to show the signs of an Xlinked disorder, and name one. Males only have one X chromosome so if there is something wrong on theirs then they don’t have another one to counter the defect. 5. Explain the purposes of genetic counseling. The purpose is to inform atrisk individuals about the relevant genetic, biological and environmental risk factors related to the individuals inherited syndrome or cancer. 6. Rachel has always enjoyed sports, especially swimming. Now that she is a parent, she takes her daughter to the pool frequently, hoping the child also will learn to enjoy swimming. How do behavior geneticists refer to this type of interaction between heredity and environment? Explain. (Passive, evocative, or active) This is an example of Passive genotypeenvironment. Rachel enjoyed swimming in her life so she frequently exposes her daughter to swimming. Her daughter is most likely to enjoy swimming like her mother and probably be good at it. 7. People seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup. For example, athletic and coordinated kids choose to play baseball and like to ride bikes. This is an example of a(n): (passive, evocative, or active). When children seek out environments that are consistent with their genetic makeup it’s an example of active. They pick environments that make them feel most comfortable. 8. List three developmental characteristics or events from each of the germinal, embryonic, and fetal periods of prenatal development. Germinal Takes place in the first two weeks. Includes the creation of the fertilized egg, cell division, and the attachment of the multicellular organism to the uterine wall. Embryonic Occurs from two to eight weeks after conception. The rate of cell differentiation intensifies, support systems for cells form, and organs develop. Fetal Lasts about 7 months. At the beginning of the fetal period the fetus can move their arms, legs, fingers, and toes. In the middle of the fetal period the fetus can suck its thumb and their hair, eyelashes, and eyebrows are present. At the end of the fetal period the fetus responds to sounds and gains immunities from its mother. 9. Carefully read the section The Brain (pg. 51). Explain neurogenesis in your own words. When does it begin to take place? Kortney Keane th Neurogenesis begins during the 5 week after conception and continues until birth. Neurogenesis is the production of new neurons. 10. Define a teratogen, and identify at least three teratogens. A teratogen is something that can potentially cause a birth defect or can negatively influence cognitive or behavioral outcomes. Some examples include drugs, incompatible blood types, and environmental pollutants. 11. List three paternal factors that can influence prenatal development. Nutrition, age, and emotional stages. 12. List and describe the three main stages of birth. The first stage is when uterine contractions are 15 to 20 minutes apart. They cause the woman’s cervix to open. The contractions come closer together usually every two to five minutes. The contractions also become more intense. At the end of the first stage the contractions dilate the cervix to about 10cm. The second stage is then the baby’s head starts to move through the cervix and into the birth canal. This stage is over when the baby is completely out of the mother’s body. The final stage is called the afterbirth. This stage is when the placenta umbilical cord, and other membranes are detached and expelled. This is the shortest stage lasting only a few minutes. 13. Explain the APGAR scale. The Apgar scale is used to assess the health of the child at one and five minutes after birth. 14. Define lowbirthweight, very low birthweight, and extremely low birthweight. Low birth weight less than 5 pounds at birth. Very low birthweight Less than 3 pounds. Extremely low birthweight Under 2 pounds. 15. Relate preterm lowbirthweight infants and cognitive development. 16. Distinguish between preterm, extremely preterm and very preterm according to your text. 17. In 1989, 23yearold Jennifer Johnson was found guilty of delivering a controlled substance to a minor; the minor was her baby who was born a cocaine addict. Do you think that mothers who use drugs during pregnancy should face criminal prosecution or incarceration? Why or why not? What should be considered here? (3 pts.) 18. Considering what you learned in question 9, why is it essential that a woman take good healthy care of herself early in pregnancy….. and even before pregnancy? Consider that some women don’t know for sure they’re pregnant until 6, 7, 8 or more weeks. What danger is there in this…. In light of the research on early brain development? (3 pts.) 19. In March of 2002, a child custody judge in Utica, New York, ruled that a mother must quit smoking or lose visitation rights to her child. The judge said the mother could not smoke in her home or car, whether the child was present or not. The ruling was intended to guarantee a smokefree environment for the child. Consider the pros and cons of the ruling. (3 pts.) 20. Reread pg. 41 on Genetic Principles. Read the following scenario and decide what the chances are this couple will have a child with freckles? (Freckles a dominant trait.) Dad has one dominant gene for freckles and mom does not have freckles. (3 pts.) Kortney Keane
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