New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Week One Lecture Notes

by: Miri Taple

Week One Lecture Notes BIO 227

Miri Taple
Cal Poly
View Full Document for 0 Karma

View Full Document


Unlock These Notes for FREE

Enter your email below and we will instantly email you these Notes for Wildlife Conservation Biology

(Limited time offer)

Unlock Notes

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Unlock FREE Class Notes

Enter your email below to receive Wildlife Conservation Biology notes

Everyone needs better class notes. Enter your email and we will send you notes for this class for free.

Unlock FREE notes

About this Document

These notes cover the material talked about in week one lectures
Wildlife Conservation Biology
Dr. Lisa Needles
Class Notes
Bio, Wildlife conservation




Popular in Wildlife Conservation Biology

Popular in Department

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


Reviews for Week One Lecture Notes


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/23/16
Bio 227 Wildlife Conservation Biology- Lecture Notes 9/23/15 Difference between wildlife and biodiversity: Wildlife: Free ranging, non-domesticated especially terrestrial birds and mammals ex. Whales, tigers, etc. …but can’t really separate from other plant and animal associates (habitat, food, etc.) Biodiversity: Includes invertebrates ex. Fish, cows, chicken, etc. Biological Diversity “Biodiversity” Variation of life at all scales, the variety and variability of life. Three scales of biodiversity 1.   Ecosystem 2.   Species 3.   Genetic •   Diversity of ecosystems Ecosystem: a biological community of interacting organisms and their physical environment •   Diversity of Species Simply determined by the number of different species in an ecosystem •   Genetic diversity Genetic variability within a species, what you can and can’t see (ex. Hair color v. immunity) Ex. Tasmanian devils = low genetic diversity leading to low immunity to a viral cancer Ex. Cheetahs = low genetic diversity leading to ability to easily get a skin graft that matches. Ex. Sea otters = low genetic diversity leading to low immunity to parasites. Population from 300,000 to 1,000. Shows importance of genetic diversity in order to conserve species. What good is biodiversity? A.   Instrumental values (benefits to humans) •   Consumptive benefits (food, medicine, engineering and other products {ex. Extraction of whale oil to light lamps}) •   Non-consumptive benefits o   recreational benefits- bird watching, whale watching o   spiritual benefits- symbolic, totemic, aesthetic (U.S.A bald eagle) o   service benefits- pollination (decline of bee population becomes problem for growers, begin to hand pollinate.), pest control (Barn owls keep rodent population down.), erosion control (ecosystem services: the benefits for humans that arise from healthily functioning ecosystems.) *Humans think of benefits in terms of money, recreation for business, etc. Expenditures for use of wildlife in the U.S.: non-consumptive benefit monetarily $55 billion > consumptive benefit monetarily $32 billion… meaning that if we had to provide all of the services that it provides to us in the absence of it that’s what it would cost. -   Wetlands have the highest value… service value to humans = $3.43 trillion/ yr. -   A fundamental tenet of conservation biology is that species and ecosystems have intrinsic value, shift from thinking “why save?” to “why destroy?” B.   Intrinsic values (irrespective of humans) “willingness to pay” approach: how much would you be willing to pay to save giant pandas? “compensation” approach: if giant pandas went extinct, how much should you be compensated? This can also apply to landscapes *These approaches may vary for the same species What is management? Implies human manipulation and requires planning -   Goal -   Process -   Fundamental assumptions The role of science? -   To inform the process of management for desired outcomes -   Management is socio-political and is dependent on societal values Conservation traditions/ ethics and the origin of conservation biology •   Utilitarian tradition “resource conservation ethic” o   Emphasizes sustainable use of resources o   Figurehead: Gifford Pinchot, first chief of U.S. forest service o   Forestry game management o   Sustainable use of resources, not going to deplete it by limiting consumption o   Game laws date back to 1600’s protecting species that are hunted or eaten, allow some take but preserve •   Spiritual or scenic tradition “romantic-transcendental preservation ethic” o   Emphasizes non-consumptive use of resources o   Figurehead: John Muir, convinced Roosevelt to create Yosemite, etc. o   Root of state and national parks, cannot extract resources o   Keeping areas intact, also human-centered (anthropocentric) yet non- consumptive Conservation biology arose from the science of field ecology. •   It is the application of various biological disciplines (mostly ecology and its sub- disciplines) toward the goal of preserving biological diversity, applied science (v. basic science), considered crisis discipline, implies that biological diversity can and should be conserved. •   “the land ethic”- Aldo Leopold- stewardship of ecological community nd •   “sand country almanac” dependent on ecosystem… 2 part of Leopold’s land ethic •   unlike other organisms in the network, humans are self-aware, and have the moral obligation to act responsibly and preserve. History of Wildlife Management Who owns wildlife? Wildlife is a “public trust” there is no private ownership of wildlife, wildlife is owned equally by all citizens. It is managed on our behalf by the government for the welfare of all current and future generations. Fundamental goals of wildlife management: •   maintain species used by humans (game- traditional) •   reduce conflict b/n humans and wildlife (pests- traditional) •   prevent extinction (recent) •   maintain biological diversity (most modern) Wildlife manager duties: •   manage human behavior •   manage habitat •   manage individual (usually problem) animals, rarely manage wildlife in the collective sense w/o going through human actions or wildlife manipulations North American model of wildlife conservation: •   wildlife is a public trust resource •   elimination of markets for wildlife •   allocation of wildlife by law •   wildlife should only be killed for legitimate purposes •   wildlife is an international resource •   science = proper tool for wildlife policy •   democracy of hunting Origins of “public trust” doctrine: Roman law: no one owned Medieval England: owned by the king, could bestow title to others to take wildlife, or else considered stealing from king. Magna Carta: limited absolute power to the crown American Colonies: parliamentary powers for the resources within their borders… authority became vested in states. *State’s authority from supreme court decision 1842, Martin v. Wadell U.S. government regulates wildlife sometimes, esp. across borders/ endangered The Age of Exploitation (Colonial Era to 1890): •   Unregulated commercialization of wildlife products •   Eradication of predators •   Destruction of habitat for agriculture, industry •   Wildlife harvest esp. fur (fundamental to exploitation) Exploitation Ways •   Market hunting (commercial fishing) •   Punt guns for waterfowl (1 shot killed 50 waterfowl) Massive Extinctions •   Bison were abundant, about 60 million, brought down to 1,000 individuals 1860-1880 peak killing. Used to clear plains for agriculture. Native Americans were dependent on them, therefore, eradication of bison = eradication of Native Americans •   Passenger pigeon- avian equivalent to bison. 1-2 billion birds in a single flock. They were harvested for consumption in restaurants, harvested by cutting down trees and creating habitat destruction. “Martha” the last one died in a zoo •   Others: Great Auk 1844 extinct, Labrador Duck 1875 extinct, Carolina Parakeet 1880 extinct Feathers as fashion Species reduced 1700’s and 1800’s more exotic = more desirable Millinery (women’s hat) trade included hummingbirds, egrets, etc. Bio 227 Wildlife Conservation Biology- Lecture Notes 9/21/15 Key Endangered Species: •   Wolves: Threats to livestock, a bounty put on them. 1973- few hundred… now- 5,300. Increase in their population lead to increase in wildlife and changed Yellowstone geology. •   Spotted owl: threat- Barred owl, more dominant competitor. Threat- logging, dependent on old growth forests. •   Bald eagle: DDT used WWII, Vietnam as pesticide… bioaccumulation and bio magnification led to soft eggs. Other threat- habitat destruction/ illegal shooting. •   Lion: about 25-30,000 left in Africa down from 200,000 in 1960. Ex. Cecil the lion shot by trophy hunter from MN. Trophy hunting primarily U.S. citizens. The Human Footprint: •   Determine human impact: total human population size x per capita resource use •   2015: 7.349 billion people (world population) 1.   China- 1.357 B 2.   India- 1.25 B 3.   U.S.A- 313.9 M •   Current annual growth rate: 1.2%, 78 M humans added per year •   Prediction for 2050 = 9 B people (dependent on fertility: income, law, disease, access to contraceptives, education for women and access to work force, healthcare, etc.) •   Growth rate higher in developing nations Ecological Footprint: the impact of a person or a community on the environment expressed as the amount of land required to sustain their use of natural resources. •   U.S.A: 9.6 ha (24 acres) •   Pakistan: 0.6 ha (1.5 acres) •   World average: 2.2 ha (5.4 acres) Six general impacts: 1.   Carbon 2.   Cropland 3.   Grazing land 4.   Forests 5.   Fishing grounds 6.   Built up land Consumption v. population Global carbon footprint- U.S. and China tied despite population difference.


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

0 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.