Week Four Lecture Notes
Week Four Lecture Notes BIO 227
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miri Taple on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 227 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Dr. Lisa Needles in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
10/12/15 Lecture Notes Overexploitation continued • Rhino Horns: o When depleted they become more valuable o Medicinal or status value o White rhino- 4 left in captivity o Black rhino o Traditional Asian medicines claim to have rhino horn in them o Yemen utilizes the horn as an ornamental piece o More rhinos being poached now than ever before in Africa o Removal of rhino horn to deter poaching in Namibia etc. but people will either continue to kill the rhino anyway or sometimes a bit of it is left and it will grow back and that small bit is still valuable enough for poachers • Elephant Tusks: o African elephant-vulnerable 450-700,000 o Asian elephant- threatened 35,000 o Elephant poaching for ivory o Ivory harvested in Africa but exported to japan for carving o Slaughter of elephants is primarily driven by rich Chinese looking for ivory and Catholics in the Philippines • The fur trade: o 18,000 jaguars killed/yr. in 1960’s and 1970’s for fur o Jackie Kennedy in the media with leopard skin coat made the demand for spotted cat coats soar, 154,000 skins imported to the U.S. in 1968 o Fur trade is still going on- bobcats o CA has outlawed trapping/ killing of bobcats along with some other states o Most poaching for international trade is done by local people trying to feed their families, they only receive a tiny fraction of the final “street value”, later purchased by wealthy individuals in developed nations (U.S., Germany, Japan, Saudi Arabia) the demand for consumers = problem • Smuggling/ exotic pet trade o Parrot eggs, small reptiles o Management of commercial exploitation: § Simple bans on harvesting or sale are often ineffective, and many actually make the problem worse by creating a black market (poaching, smuggling)- especially for status goods § To be successful, management must simultaneously address local harvesting (limit or prohibit), supply chain and transportation, and end- user demand (not just purchasing). • Persecution, intolerance, and eradication o Carolina parakeet- driven to extinction § One of only two parrot species native to the U.S. § Endemic to the eastern U.S. § Became agricultural pest, especially on apples and corn § Suffered from habitat destruction, harvested for feathers § Largely eradicated by the late 1800’s/ extinct by 1920 § Last known died in the Cincinnati zoo in 1918 o Wolf control in Alaska o CA grizzly bear, etc. Overexploitation in marine ecosystems • Whaling o Meat and oil o mid 1800’s peak in the U.S. due to technological and ship advances o west coast grey whale o 8 whale species were listed as endangered- whaling was then outlawed o 1946- IWC (international whaling committee) established whaling free sanctuaries o Norway and Japan continued to allow whaling o Grey whale benefited from the IWC laws- no longer endangered o Other threats to whales: § Noise pollution (NAVY sonar system) § Chemical pollution (oil) § Climate change (melting ice caps and acidity of ocean water) § Boat strikes (U.S. problem mostly on human traffic filled east coast) § Harmful algal blooms § Overexploitation of prey o Japanese whaling- scientific research o March 2014 ruled it banned in international waters- Japan has ignored this o Norway and Iceland take Minke whales but in exclusive economic zones • Who regulates fisheries? o Federal gov., state gov., international regulatory agency, and sometimes nobody o Exclusive economic zone (200 nautical miles) regulated by the federal government o First 3-mile zone regulated by the state government o Beyond 200 miles it is international water, regional fisheries management organization regulates species that move great distances (ex. Bluefin tuna) • Collapse of fisheries o Whales, grand banks (cod), dogger bank (herring), Bluefin tuna (almost extinct but still being hunted because the skin is valuable (used for sushi). o Traditional management § Set catch limits for some species § In the U.S. every species for which the government manages has a catch limit (only happened in 2013) § Tragedy of the commons effect- everyone goes after as much of the resource as fast as they can o Fishing methods: § Bottom trawling- destroys the seafloor, disturbs habitat, and 90 % is by catch § Purse seining- by catch § Long lining- 50 % by catch § Recreational fishing: mentality of the bigger the better • BOFFFF hypothesis • The big old fat fecund female fish hypothesis • Old fish are bigger • Bigger fish have more eggs • More eggs mean more offspring • By targeting big female fish, you decrease the population even more • Essentially, targeting big fish= taking all reproductive females § Marine protected areas- cannot fish, limited fishing, etc. 10/14/15 Lecture Notes/ Zoo to You presentation Continuation of marine overexploitation • Catch shares o Quota based- quota for group or individuals on how many fish they can catch o Area based- incentive for people responsible for that area to conserve fish so as to sustainably return to that area later • Other threats to ocean biodiversity o Dead zones: not enough oxygen in the water to sustain life, due to agricultural runoff that contains fertilizers and pesticides. Those chemicals increase plant growth, it makes the oceanic plants grow rapidly and then die, they use a lot of oxygen when they decompose o Algal blooms: occur when there are more nutrients o Changes to beaches: hardening of the shoreline o Pollution o Global climate change: warming temperatures and ocean acidification. Some species will change their range to cope, ex. coral will expel algae out of tissue, coral bleaching, acidification tampers with animals attempting to build their shell Zoo to You • Wildlife rescue in Paso Robles • Native injured animals that can’t return to the wild • Used to educate and inspire people about conservation • Illegal pet trade creates mental problems and physical problems amongst animals • Imprinted animal- born in captivity, don’t have the skills or physical capability to survive in the wild • when they have encountered people too much during their youth, they are deemed non- releasable • 3 main reasons why animals are becoming extinct/ endangered (due to humans) o pet trade o parts trade o habitat destruction • illegal pet trade- animal becomes popular to have as a pet (fad), no federal laws (except for bald eagle) all state laws and they differ state to state o Maya- spider monkey § Found in the dumpster § Bone disease- malnutrition § Comes from the amazon § Aggressive by nature o Shmegal- kinkajou § Aggressive by nature § Popular pet trade animal § Paris Hilton had one and it ended up at Zoo to You § Fruit eaters o Sloloris § 1 of 2 left § critically endangered § from rainforest of Indonesia § confiscated from owner § smuggled into the U.S. § survival plan- breed animals that are critically endangered § parts trade- hunted for their eyeballs, believed culturally that this will keep you safe from their stare § venom like toxin, not good for pets o Falcon § DDT in waterways made its way up the food chain to them, softened their eggs and the babies were never born § Found in CA with an injured wing § Animals adapted to live in urban areas- better adapted to that than the wild (bird eater, it eats pigeons in the city) § Raptor- bird that hunts with its feet o Bard Owl § Native to the southern U.S. swamp areas § No light = no sight in any animal on the planet § Cannot move its eyeballs as we can but can move its head much more o Alligator § Found in an LA drug raid § Success story from the parts trade, hunted for their hide, they are now farmed for that purpose § So overprotected that now there is an overpopulation § Hunting is necessary for this species- carrying capacity issues § Very well adapted and long lasting animal
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