Americas and Oceania
Americas and Oceania 27551
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Omar Barriga on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 27551 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Joshua Fan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see World History to 1500 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
02/16/16 Americas and Oceania The agricultural revolution developed independently in the new continent. For several hundreds of years (until 1492) there was no interaction between the old and new continents. The American continent was reached about 15,000BCE during the last ice age. The early humans were able to walk into the continent from Asia, thanks to the Bering strait. EX. See below. o the yellow line is the possible land pass used between modern day Russia and Alaska. After the ice age, the great glaciers melt covering the passage. Columbus wasn’t the first foreigner to reached America. As a matter of fact; the Vikings reached the continent way before Columbus did, however, he is remembered for the colonization of the Americas. o Before the arriving of Europeans, the wheel was nonexistent in America. (at least for a useful purpose) THE OLMEC The Olmec was the first Mesoamerican complex society (1200BCE400BCE). Unfortunately, there isn’t enough information regarding their culture, way of life or traditions. But we do know that the Olmec’s created the famous “Ball Game”. A game that consisted of throwing a rubber ball through a ring that highly influence latter Mesoamerican societies. The Olmec’s are also known for the construction of enormous stone heads. Scholars don’t know exactly who are the people portrayed but its open for interpretation. It is believed that they could be kings, warriors or simply ball game winners. The name Olmec comes from the Aztecs; it means “rubber people” the Aztecs named them like that because of all the rubber threes found in their abandon sites. To this day, the Olmec’s are a mystery lost in history. THE MAYANS The rise of the Mayan civilization did not occur over night after the decline of the Olmec’s, (2000BCE250CE) but they are the direct successors of the Olmec empire. The Mayans are regarded as highly educated. They developed a writing system, a calendar (the calendar was so exact that the difference between our modern calendar and theirs is only 17 sec) they created the concept of ZERO, they build great cities and pyramids; most famous are TIKAL, TEOTIHUACAN AND THE PYRAMID OF THE SUN AND THE MOON. The fall of the Mayan society is a mystery as well. The conquistadores burn most ceremonial books and inscriptions in Mayan in hopes of turning natives into Catholicism. Only 4 Mayan codices (books) are left. Most of the information we have about them comes from rock relief inscriptions or texts from other civilizations. CHAVIN THE HUANTAR The early American societies seem to be all a mystery until the Aztecs, and the Chavin civilization isn’t the exception. (1200BCE) We know even less about the chavins than of the olmecs, however, what we do know and it’s important to keep in mind is that they left several pottery jars, cups and figurines left. From their figurines we know that they appreciated corn, music and family traditions. Their decline started around 400500BCE. OCEANIA Oceania is composed of; Micronesia, Polynesia and Melanesia. Rapanui was the early name of “Easter island” before the “discovery” of Europeans. Rapa nui is known for their hundreds of humanshaped monumental statues. AUSTRONESIA Austronesia (Austronesians) is the term given to the people/area occupied by inhabitants that speak an Austronesian language. The area is composed of countries as; Madagascar, New Zealand, Indonesia, Philippines and Hawaii. THE HOKULEA Hokulea was the name of the ship used by scholars to investigate the migratory movements of the ancient Austronesians. For several years (probably hundreds) it was believed by Europeans that people from Oceania populated remote islands by luck. The people from the hokulea challenged that belief and they demonstrated that the peoples of ancient Austronesia had their own methods to guide themselves in the sea. This discovery proved that the natives were smarter than thought before and, it also show how early peoples were able to navigate in the sea.
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