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Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span

by: Bailey Gabrish

Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span Psych 1010

Marketplace > Science > Psych 1010 > Chapter 5 Developing Through the Life Span
Bailey Gabrish

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About this Document

These notes cover the lecture and textbook reading from Chapter 5.
Introduction to Psychology
Melinda Fabian
Class Notes
Psychology, Introduction to Psychology, Science, Social Science
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.

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Date Created: 02/23/16
Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span Developmental Psychology  Developmental Psychology – studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a  lifespan  Focuses on issues concerning 1. Nature versus nurture 2. Continuity and life stages 3. Stability and change  Humans develop in stages  Stable things include temperament while a less stable trait is social attitudes o Stability can provide identity while change allows for adaptation Prenatal Development  Zygotes – fertilized eggs which enter a two week period of cell division and become an  embryos  o Moves from conception to implantation  Embryos – a developing human organism found two weeks after fertilization through the  second month  o Organogenesis  Fetus – a developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth o Fetuses can learn through sound (especially their mothers’ voices)  Teratogens – “monster maker” agents, including chemicals and viruses, that reach an  embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm o This can include alcohol, smoking, and STDs  Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – pregnant woman’s drinking leads to physical or cognitive  abnormalities in the child o Can include a small or unproportioned head and abnormal facial features Newborn Abilities  Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation o As infants are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner o Gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember Brain and Motor Development during Childhood  Maturation – biological growth processes that allow changes in behavior and is  uninfluenced by environment Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Brain development includes o Brain neurons produced by the cortex and the connections among neurons  proliferate at birth o Reflexes are inborn  Rooting Reflex – turn toward touch  Sucking Reflex – suck on something in the mouth  Crying o From 3 to 6 years frontal lobe grows o Association areas are last to develop with thinking, language, and memory  Motor development is universal and includes o Genes that guide development o Cerebellum development Piaget and Vygotsky’s Perspectives of Child Development  Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory o Cognition – mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering,  and communicating o A child’s mind develops in stages and they are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences as they mature with environment interaction o Schema – a concept that organizes and interprets information  Assimilation – interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas  Accommodation – adaptation current schemas to incorporate new  information o Stage Theory – cognitive development consists of sensorimotor, preoperational,  concrete operational, and formal operational stages  Sensorimotor – from birth to two years old during which infants know the  world through sensory impressions and motor activities  Object Permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist  even when they are not directly perceived  Math Study in which babies stare longer and with more surprise  when numbers don’t seem to make sense as when a doll is taken  out of a situation when, in the previous situation, the doll was there  Preoperational Stage – from two to six years old in which a child learns to  use language but cannot yet comprehend mental operations of concrete  language  Conservation – understanding that properties like mass, volume,  and number remain the same despite changes in the form of objects  Egocentrism – child’s difficulty in understanding another’s point  of view  Theory of Mind – understanding of one’s own and others’ mental  states including feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors and  the understanding that others have their own thoughts Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts  Concrete Operational Stage – from seven to eleven years in which  children gain mental operations enabling them to think logically about  concrete events  Formal Operational Stage – beginning at twelve, children start to think  logically about abstract concepts o Piaget thoughts that kids did not think abstractly yet evidence shows children  notice violations in physics  Researchers believe he underestimated children’s competence  Lev Vygotsky’s beliefs o Children increasingly think in words and use them to solve problems o The child’s mind grows through interaction with their social environment Autism Spectrum Disorder  Autism Spectrum Disorder – a childhood disorder in which one has difficulties in  communication and social interaction due to rigidly fixed interests and repetitive  behaviors o These children have an impaired theory of mind and more difficulty in mental  mirroring Parent­Infant Attachment Bonds  Stranger Anxiety – fears of strangers infants begin displaying at eight months  Attachment – an emotional tie with another person in which young children feel close to  their caregiver and become stressed when separated from them o Separation anxiety peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in daycare  (environmental) o Monkey Experiment in which monkeys preferred the physical and comfortable  body contact from a fake mother rather than the fake mother that was providing  food o Sensitive and responsive caregiving leads to secure attachments and may affect  later relations  Critical Period – optimal period in early life when exposure to stimuli and experiences  helps produce normal development o Imprinting – certain animals form strong attachments to others during early life Studying of Attachment Differences  Mary Atkinson Strange Situation Experiment illustrated secure attachment versus  insecure attachment  Basic Trust – Erik Erikson’s idea that there is a sense the world is predictable and  trustworthy which is formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive  caregivers Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Childhood Neglect’s Effects on Attachment  Affluent children are at risk for greater drug use, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety  Children are resilient  Abuse breeds abuse  Children suffer when bonds are severed Development of Self­Concepts  Self­Concept – all thoughts and feelings that answer who one is Parenting Styles and Children’s Relation to Them  Authoritarian Style – emphasis on rules and obedience; “because I said so”  Permissive Style – unrestraining, make little demands, indifferent, submit to kids  development  Authoritative Style – confront and demand but allows exceptions Adolescence’s Physical and Cognitive Changes  Adolescence – the transition from childhood to adulthood and puberty to independence o Puberty – sexual maturation when one becomes able to reproduce  Includes teen brain development in which emotional limbic system is  wired before the frontal lobes so teens understand risks but like rewards  despite consequences  Brain stops adding new connections and becomes more efficient by  rewiring and coating existing connections in myelin sheath (pruning also  occurs)  Adolescents apply reason and begin to think about what others may think of them o Kohlberg’s moral reasoning stages include preconventional, conventional, post­ conventional o Haidt’s moral intuition makes aesthetic judgments automatically o Moral action depends on social influences Social Tasks and Challenges of Adolescents  Identity – a sense of self in which adolescents solidify their sense of self by testing out  and integrating various roles (Erikson)  Social Identity – aspects of self­concept that come from group memberships  Intimacy – the ability to form close and loving relationships primarily in young adulthood (Erikson)  Western adolescents seek to form their own identities and peer relationships become  more important but parents are still seen as a primary influence in the life of adolescent  Better parent relationships lead to better peer relationships o During adolescents, parent­child conflicts are over minor daily issues Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Adulthood’s Physical and Mental Changes  Emerging Adulthood – period from eighteen to mid­twenties when those in Western  cultures are no longer adolescents yet have not fully reached independence as adults  From mid to late adulthood, people experience o Changes in fertility  Menopause – natural cessation of menstruation or the biological changes a woman experiences as her reproduction ability declines o Sexuality lessens o Physical decline o Mind frame  Keep more positive, stable mood, and increased sense of competence  Mental changes include o A lessening of prospective memory (remembering to do something)  Cross­Sectional Studies – compare people of different ages  Longitudinal Studies – restudy people over time Disorders that Affect Cognitive Ability  Neurocognitive Disorder – acquired disorders from cognitive deficits often relate to  Alzheimer’s, brain injury, or substance abuse (previously known as dementia) o Alzheimer’s – neural plaques cause a progressive decline in memory and  cognitive ability  The loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons that produce  acetylcholine can lead to this disorder The Social Journey  Social Clock – culturally preferred timing of social events including marriage,  parenthood, and retirement  Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of love and work in adulthood  Well­being changes across the lifespan o From teen years to midlife is a strengthening of identity o Later life challenges arise o Older adults have a smaller network and experience fewer relationship problems Key:          Definitions           Important People/Psychologists              Important Terms/Concepts Biological Influences Psychological Influences  No predisposition to early   Optimism cognitive decline  Active  Nutrition Successful Aging Socio­cultural Influences  Support  Cultural respect for aging  Safe living conditions Reactions to a Loved One’s Death  Terminally ill and bereaved people do not go through identical stages  The strongest grief is not purged more quickly  Not talking about it may prolong grief  Those who grieve publicly and privately adjust similarly


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