Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span
Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span Psych 1010
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Bailey Gabrish on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 1010 at a university taught by Melinda Fabian in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Chapter 5: Developing Through the Life Span Developmental Psychology Developmental Psychology – studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout a lifespan Focuses on issues concerning 1. Nature versus nurture 2. Continuity and life stages 3. Stability and change Humans develop in stages Stable things include temperament while a less stable trait is social attitudes o Stability can provide identity while change allows for adaptation Prenatal Development Zygotes – fertilized eggs which enter a two week period of cell division and become an embryos o Moves from conception to implantation Embryos – a developing human organism found two weeks after fertilization through the second month o Organogenesis Fetus – a developing human organism from nine weeks after conception to birth o Fetuses can learn through sound (especially their mothers’ voices) Teratogens – “monster maker” agents, including chemicals and viruses, that reach an embryo or fetus during prenatal development and cause harm o This can include alcohol, smoking, and STDs Fetal Alcohol Syndrome – pregnant woman’s drinking leads to physical or cognitive abnormalities in the child o Can include a small or unproportioned head and abnormal facial features Newborn Abilities Habituation – decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation o As infants are repeatedly exposed to a stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner o Gives us a way to ask infants what they see and remember Brain and Motor Development during Childhood Maturation – biological growth processes that allow changes in behavior and is uninfluenced by environment Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Brain development includes o Brain neurons produced by the cortex and the connections among neurons proliferate at birth o Reflexes are inborn Rooting Reflex – turn toward touch Sucking Reflex – suck on something in the mouth Crying o From 3 to 6 years frontal lobe grows o Association areas are last to develop with thinking, language, and memory Motor development is universal and includes o Genes that guide development o Cerebellum development Piaget and Vygotsky’s Perspectives of Child Development Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory o Cognition – mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating o A child’s mind develops in stages and they are internally motivated to make sense of their experiences as they mature with environment interaction o Schema – a concept that organizes and interprets information Assimilation – interpreting new experiences in terms of existing schemas Accommodation – adaptation current schemas to incorporate new information o Stage Theory – cognitive development consists of sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, and formal operational stages Sensorimotor – from birth to two years old during which infants know the world through sensory impressions and motor activities Object Permanence – the awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not directly perceived Math Study in which babies stare longer and with more surprise when numbers don’t seem to make sense as when a doll is taken out of a situation when, in the previous situation, the doll was there Preoperational Stage – from two to six years old in which a child learns to use language but cannot yet comprehend mental operations of concrete language Conservation – understanding that properties like mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the form of objects Egocentrism – child’s difficulty in understanding another’s point of view Theory of Mind – understanding of one’s own and others’ mental states including feelings, perceptions, thoughts, and behaviors and the understanding that others have their own thoughts Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Concrete Operational Stage – from seven to eleven years in which children gain mental operations enabling them to think logically about concrete events Formal Operational Stage – beginning at twelve, children start to think logically about abstract concepts o Piaget thoughts that kids did not think abstractly yet evidence shows children notice violations in physics Researchers believe he underestimated children’s competence Lev Vygotsky’s beliefs o Children increasingly think in words and use them to solve problems o The child’s mind grows through interaction with their social environment Autism Spectrum Disorder Autism Spectrum Disorder – a childhood disorder in which one has difficulties in communication and social interaction due to rigidly fixed interests and repetitive behaviors o These children have an impaired theory of mind and more difficulty in mental mirroring ParentInfant Attachment Bonds Stranger Anxiety – fears of strangers infants begin displaying at eight months Attachment – an emotional tie with another person in which young children feel close to their caregiver and become stressed when separated from them o Separation anxiety peaks and fades whether kids are at home or in daycare (environmental) o Monkey Experiment in which monkeys preferred the physical and comfortable body contact from a fake mother rather than the fake mother that was providing food o Sensitive and responsive caregiving leads to secure attachments and may affect later relations Critical Period – optimal period in early life when exposure to stimuli and experiences helps produce normal development o Imprinting – certain animals form strong attachments to others during early life Studying of Attachment Differences Mary Atkinson Strange Situation Experiment illustrated secure attachment versus insecure attachment Basic Trust – Erik Erikson’s idea that there is a sense the world is predictable and trustworthy which is formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Childhood Neglect’s Effects on Attachment Affluent children are at risk for greater drug use, eating disorders, depression, and anxiety Children are resilient Abuse breeds abuse Children suffer when bonds are severed Development of SelfConcepts SelfConcept – all thoughts and feelings that answer who one is Parenting Styles and Children’s Relation to Them Authoritarian Style – emphasis on rules and obedience; “because I said so” Permissive Style – unrestraining, make little demands, indifferent, submit to kids development Authoritative Style – confront and demand but allows exceptions Adolescence’s Physical and Cognitive Changes Adolescence – the transition from childhood to adulthood and puberty to independence o Puberty – sexual maturation when one becomes able to reproduce Includes teen brain development in which emotional limbic system is wired before the frontal lobes so teens understand risks but like rewards despite consequences Brain stops adding new connections and becomes more efficient by rewiring and coating existing connections in myelin sheath (pruning also occurs) Adolescents apply reason and begin to think about what others may think of them o Kohlberg’s moral reasoning stages include preconventional, conventional, post conventional o Haidt’s moral intuition makes aesthetic judgments automatically o Moral action depends on social influences Social Tasks and Challenges of Adolescents Identity – a sense of self in which adolescents solidify their sense of self by testing out and integrating various roles (Erikson) Social Identity – aspects of selfconcept that come from group memberships Intimacy – the ability to form close and loving relationships primarily in young adulthood (Erikson) Western adolescents seek to form their own identities and peer relationships become more important but parents are still seen as a primary influence in the life of adolescent Better parent relationships lead to better peer relationships o During adolescents, parentchild conflicts are over minor daily issues Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Adulthood’s Physical and Mental Changes Emerging Adulthood – period from eighteen to midtwenties when those in Western cultures are no longer adolescents yet have not fully reached independence as adults From mid to late adulthood, people experience o Changes in fertility Menopause – natural cessation of menstruation or the biological changes a woman experiences as her reproduction ability declines o Sexuality lessens o Physical decline o Mind frame Keep more positive, stable mood, and increased sense of competence Mental changes include o A lessening of prospective memory (remembering to do something) CrossSectional Studies – compare people of different ages Longitudinal Studies – restudy people over time Disorders that Affect Cognitive Ability Neurocognitive Disorder – acquired disorders from cognitive deficits often relate to Alzheimer’s, brain injury, or substance abuse (previously known as dementia) o Alzheimer’s – neural plaques cause a progressive decline in memory and cognitive ability The loss of brain cells and deterioration of neurons that produce acetylcholine can lead to this disorder The Social Journey Social Clock – culturally preferred timing of social events including marriage, parenthood, and retirement Sigmund Freud emphasized the importance of love and work in adulthood Wellbeing changes across the lifespan o From teen years to midlife is a strengthening of identity o Later life challenges arise o Older adults have a smaller network and experience fewer relationship problems Key: Definitions Important People/Psychologists Important Terms/Concepts Biological Influences Psychological Influences No predisposition to early Optimism cognitive decline Active Nutrition Successful Aging Sociocultural Influences Support Cultural respect for aging Safe living conditions Reactions to a Loved One’s Death Terminally ill and bereaved people do not go through identical stages The strongest grief is not purged more quickly Not talking about it may prolong grief Those who grieve publicly and privately adjust similarly
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