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HIST 1312- Week of February 15, 2016

by: Nina Nguyen

HIST 1312- Week of February 15, 2016 HIST 1312

Marketplace > University of Texas at Arlington > History > HIST 1312 > HIST 1312 Week of February 15 2016
Nina Nguyen
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This document is the entire week's worth of notes. I have provided many comments about the significance of each event. I hope this helps!
US History 1865 to Present
Dr. Burton
Class Notes
History hist 1312 Dr. Burton UTA Feb15




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nina Nguyen on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Burton in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see US History 1865 to Present in History at University of Texas at Arlington.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
HIST 13112­ Week of the 15  of February February 16, 2016­ 1) Test Preparation i) How does the ID term bring about change in the narrative?  ii) So what? Why are we talking about it?  iii) There will be choice in which questions you get (word count) 2) Populism and the Progressive Era  a) What do you know about it? i) The progressive era contains suffrage  ii) New political party b) Homestead Act 1862­ large influx of farmers and settlers in the Great Plains c) The Farm Problem and Agrarian Protest i) Decline in commodity prices (1870­1898) (1) Farmers are supplying over the demand> prices drop> farmers fall into debt>  farmers grow more to try to get more profits> drives the prices further down>  perteuates the situation (2) Saw the railroads as the enemies because they charged a huge amount of money  to move their goods> go into further debt ii) Farmer’s Alliance (1) About 1.5 million members (2) Support system> farmers began demanding political action 3) The Populist Party a) Formed in Kansas (1887) b) Called for more, not less, government intervention in the economy i) Wanted to upset the two party system in the US ii) Claimed to represent all small farmers, poor whites and blacks, urban laborers,  everyone who is in the lower socioeconomic ladder iii) Aimed their frustration at the monopolies and corruption in politics iv) Became a national organization (1892) (1) July 4, 1892, the Populist Convention (a) Advocated unlimited silver coinage (b) Gold use to be the standard v) The money issue  (1) 10% decrease in circulating currency (1865­1890) (2) The farmers say that there is a huge supply of silver; change the currency so that it is based off of silver. Maybe there will be enough money for everyone  (3) 1873­ “The Crime of ‘73” (a) Congress declares that silver cannot be used for coins  (b) Moved to gold­only (c) Did this during the booming silver industry  (4) 1892­ Philadelphia and Reading RR declared bankruptcy (i) 1893­ economic depression (5) 1900­ one third of all farmers were tenants, not landowners (i) Extremely devastating depression for farmers  (ii) The purpose of the homestead act is being undercut by this depression  (6) Pro­silver Populists (Jennings) vs. Pro­Gold Republicans (McKinley) (a) Populists commandeer the Democratic Party (7) William Jennings Bryan (populist) (a) Gave a passionate speech that took the party by surprised  (b) Many Democrats were pro­gold (c) “Cross of Gold Speech” (Democratic Nominating Convention­ 1896) (d) He called for unlimited coinage for silver (i) It would be the best defense for the poor, mixed Christian and populist  ideologies  (ii) Crowd erupted into wild applause  (iii) Emerged as the dark horse candidate and won the Democratic  Party (e) Ran against William McKinley (f) Many saw him as a destructive force; had much support in the West by  farmers (g) Bryan didn’t get a single state in the Midwest and not much support in the  South  (i) Built up a lot of arousal (h) Lost the election> Populist Party disintegrated  (i) Their leader has failed, party lost all momentum and fell to pieces  (8) The Wizard of Oz by l. Frank Baum (1900) (a) A parable of Populism  (b) Dorothy, from Kansas, had silver shoes in the books  (c) Tin man­ industrial workers; cowardly lion­ William Jennings Bryan;  scarecrows­ farmers; the wizard is from Omaha; wicked witch of the west­  McKinley; flying monkeys­ Plains Indians; water­ drought ridden farmers in  the Midwest (d) Yellow (gold) brick road to (DC) vi) Populism became on the popular catalyst for progressivism; The convention  outlined many of the ideas that Progressives would attack  4) Explosive Urban Growth  i) Many cities tripled in size (1880­1900) (1) Many farmers (from Midwest and South) moved to the Northern cities to look for  jobs  (a) Immigration is on the rise; immigrants flock to cities  ii) The cities became a wondrous site (lights, trollies, department stores, telephones);  became a magnet for the youth (1) The sharp increase did lead to many problems  (2) New York City­ 1 to 3 million people iii) Congested multi­level stories iv) 1900­ 90% of Manhattan resident lived in tenement housing  (1) Became centers for disease (unsanitary) and low morale  (a) No in­door plumbing (buckets to urinate and bowel movements) (b) 3 out of 5 babies died before their first birthdays (2) Decreased privacy in families  (3) Tenements became a heavy issue that Progressives will hit  v) Cities themselves were filthy­ dead carcasses  (1) Yellow fever, dysentery (2) Water supply was not safe for consumption; factories threw their waste in it as  well   vi) Increase crime rates­tripled  5) Progressive Reform i) Elements of reform (1) Sanitary reforms  (a) Can’t have animals in your living quarters  (b) Factories were producing waste. Industrials are not compliant to rules and  regulations.  (c) Dead carcasses and waste in the water supply  (d) Germ Theory came out around this time!  (i) Gave credibility to reformers  (2) Needed reforms for education and police stations  ii) Settlement Houses  (1) Best known­ Jane Addam’s Hull House (Chicago, 1889) (a) Reformers wanted to have social uplift  (b) Brought the wealthy and working poor together; cooperation and interaction  between the classes will cause the poor to inherently want to improve their  lives (behavior, ways to clean themselves, similar to slave ideologies) (c) Emphasized immigrant interaction (d) Nurseries and daycares were established  (e) Taught people how to care for one another­ esp. the younger generations  (f) The Hull House became template for others throughout nation and Europe (g) Pressured politicians in Chicago for eight hour workdays  6) The Progressive Era a) “Muckrackers”  i) They are investigate journalists who expose social ills­ urban poverty, child labor,  poor working conditions; wrote exposes  (1) Revealed awful living conditions  ii) Term coined by Teddy Roosevelt  iii) Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives (1) Danish immigrant who focused on tenement housing and life for the urban poor  (2) Stated that the tenements were the boundary line for how the other half lives (3) Used flash photography to visualize his insights in his book (a) As visual creatures, seeing these pictures made a significant impact (4) Commentary from quote: how can we live in this Christian city if we allow our  neighbors to suffer in these unsanitary, dark, damp “outhouses” that was  converted into dwellings”? iv) Political progressives called for efficient, honest politics (a) Like the populists, felt that the only way you can do this is to increase local,  state, and federal control v) Theodore Roosevelt and the political force of the progressives in the 20  century  7) What connection do you see between the working unrest and rise of populism? a) The urban poor and west farmers can group together because they lack representation. 8) Populism and progressivism?  a) Both movements wanted to improve the standard of living for individuals in the lower  socioeconomic ladder. Migration of ideas from rural to urban areas. Advocated for  equality.  9) Significance? a) Donald Trump­ Williams Bryan  February 18, 2016 Immigration, Race, and Eugenics in the Gilded Age Increased immigration> Competition for jobs> tensions between cultures (different religions,  etc.) 1. The pull of the United States a. US immigration (1870s­1920s) i. Reached as high as 9 million people in 1900s 1. Dipped down in 1910s because of immigration restrictions  ii. Often congregated in urban settings 2. New Immigration a. Chinese Immigration in the West­ they were drawned by the Gold Rush  i. After gold mining died down, they concentrated on railroads ii. Like the Irish, they received a lot of discriminations  1. Sentiment is the strongest in California  a. In 1854, govt official said that the Chinese were inferior  iii. California led the way to restrict immigration­ set a precedent for the US as a  nation  iv. Beforehand, there was no process. Free borders until now  v. Pressure in California builds­ reach the federal government in DC 1. However, China is a major trading partner with US, but Cali really  wants to stop immigration 2. In a new treaty 1880, the US proposed a restriction of immigration  with China. Suspended Chinese immigration for 10 years.  3. 1882­ Chinese Exclusion Act  a. First act in US history to place federal restriction on  immigration  b. 1870s­1880s, more immigrants from southern and western Europe  i. What’s different from the Irish and German? Language, culture, and religion  (eastern Orthodox) 1. Many progressives wanted to “Americanize” the immigrants  2. However, some nativists wanted to keep that separation. Gave them a  sense of superiority.  3. Cartoon: WASP­ White, Anglo, Saxon, Protestants were the preferred  race   c. Ellis Island, opened in January 1, 1892 until 1954 i. Headquarters of Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS) 1. All immigrants had to go through this process  2. 12 million immigrants were processed, inspection, and detention  3. Physical inspection and processing a. Began when they boarded the boats  4. Then, interrogation to determine ability to work, learn English,  ambitions, how much money  ii. The Statute of Liberty­ gift from France to commemorate the Declaration of  Independence (completed in 1886) 1. Not meant to be a symbol for immigration, but it quickly became one  2. Source of hope and inspiration  d. Angel Island (counterpart to Ellis Island) (1910­1940) i. Interrogated Asian immigrants after the Asian Exclusion Act was lifted  ii. Only 175,000 people out of the 1 million processed were Chinese  iii. 30 percent were denied  e. Neighborhood enclaves: “Little Italy,” “Chinatown,” “Little Hungary,” etc.  i. Once established, it became a point of origin where immigrants can move to  3. The Eugenics Movement  a. Focused on improving the human race through selective breeding  b. Tying one’s place in society with their genetics  c. Believed that moral and personality was inherited similar to how physical  characteristics are inherited  d. Limited interracial marriages i. Making others sterile eventually  e. Francis Galton, Hereditary Genius (1883) i. Eugenics, “good in birth” ii. Said that your parent’s intelligence was inherited  iii. Coincides with progressive era (wanting to improve society) At this time, population growth of different races were occurring very rapidly> fear f. Wanted to protect the racial integrity of the US g. Creation of new racial identities  i. They were actually ranked by their race  h. Miscegenation  4. Immigration Restrictions  a. Restricted the number of immigrants based on the percent of that race present in 1910 census.  b. 1924 Immigration Act­ surpassed the Emergency quota Act i. Permanently set a 2 percent quota based on the percentage of foreign­born in  the 1890 census.  1. This was when the immigration count was very low. Right before the  boom.  ii. No restriction south of the border  1. Became the fastest growing ethnic group  5. Race relations and the new KKK a. The Second Ku Klux Klan i. Revival, early 20  century ii. They restricted membership to WASPs, called it 100% Americanism  1. Burning cross came from the book The Clansmen 2. The Birth of a Nation, D.W. Griffith (1915)  a. A film made in the 20  century but about the Reconstruction  i. In the film, many historical moments were taken out of  context iii. Said they were saviors of the South  b. The National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (1909) i. Organized as a response to the spike in violence towards colored people ii. Ida B. Wells  1. Used her writing to talk about the crime of lynching  c. Booker T. Washington and W.E.B. Du Bois  


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