Lecture 4 History 1312
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Fernanda Navarro on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 1312 at University of Texas at Arlington taught by Dr. Kristen Burton in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see U.S HIstory since 1865 in History at University of Texas at Arlington.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Lecture #4 February 2 , 2016 The Great Wars of the West 1. The driving force of westward expansion a. Manifest destiny 2. The Republican party was founded upon the central ideal of freesoilers a. Against the expansion of slavery out of the South b. They wanted the west to fall at the hands of free farmers, not planters who formerly owned slaves 3. Homestead Act, 1862 a. Promote the settlement of individual families b. 160 acre plots in the Great Plains, but not the best for farming because of such little rain c. The Great Plains attracted millions of people, not only from across the United States but also from Europe Encouraging Western Tribes 1. 1865, approx. 350,000 natives lived west of the Mississippi 2. Native Americans thought of land as for use of groups of people, not belonging to one person in particular 3. Treaty of Fort Lorraine, 1851 a. Established boundaries that Whites were not supposed to cross b. Many violated the treaty and moved across the boundaries and received no consequences/repercussions c. The miners that crossed such boundaries began to be attacked by tribes i. U.S. invested in protecting the miners for their own purpose and selfish wants (gold) Red Cloud’s War 1. Bozeman Trail a. 18641866, 3,500 miners and settlers moved along the trail 2. Attacks on the trail began, led by a tribe chief Red Cloud (18661868) a. United States could not put a stop to these attacks 3. 1866, Colonel Carrington and 700 soldiers constructed Fort Phil Kearny on the Bozeman Trail a. Captain William J. Fetterman joined Carrington and advised him to take violent strides 4. Dec. 21, 1866, a wagon was being attacked a. Fetterman was allowed to take measures to help but was told not to engage with or pursue the Native Americans b. Fetterman immediately disobeyed his orders and crossed into native territory, a trap set by the natives 5. The Fetterman Massacre, or “The Battle of the Hundred Slain”, climax of Red Cloud’s War a. Pushes U.S. to attempt peace talks with the Native American 6. Red Cloud’s War ended April 29, 1868 with Treaty of Fort Lorraine (1868) a. Red Cloud had to agree to the relocation of the Sioux tribes 7. Great Sioux Reservation a. In theory a big piece of land but did not go that way b. The U.S. government still wanted the alleged gold said to be in South Dakota The Great Sioux War 1. July 1874, Lieutenant colonel George Armstrong Custer lead the expedition into the Black Hills of South Dakota 2. 1875, Locota chief Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse attempt to defend Sioux territory (may) 3. A Sioux delegation goes to the president to gain their land and uphold the treaty a. Grant says no and pushes the to relocate to Oklahoma 4. U.S. military issued ultimatum Nov. 1875: all Sioux required to report to a local agency by Jan 31, 1876 a. In February, grant allows forced submission of Sioux 5. U.S. army attack the Sioux, begins the war, May 1876 6. June 25, 1876, Custer led the 7 Cavalry along the ravines of Little Bighorn River a. Custer divided his 3 forces 3 ways i. Attack village ii. Attack warriors hidden around them iii. Round up those who try to flee b. The village had three times as many warriors as Custer’s fleet, Custer had no idea c. Attack lasted just over an hour 7. By the late 1870s, Native resistance began to fall apart Defeat of the Plains Indians 1. By the mid1880s, hunters killed over 13 million bison in order to make way for the new railroad, taking away an important food source from the natives 2. Rewards were being distributed to those who turned in dead Indians 3. Movement to assimilate Indians, 1880s 4. 1891, Indian children forced to attend American boarding schools a. Carlisle Indian Industrial School, founded 1879 b. Eliminate Indian culture and instill western culture into natives 5. The Dawes Act, 1887 a. Divided Indian lands into 160 acre parcels b. Wants to enforce private ownership of land c. Natives had to abandon their entire culture and religion to become citizens 6. 1881, Indians controlled 155 million acres 7. 1887, Indians controlled approx. 77 million acres 8. Natives continued to fight assimilation 9. The Ghost Dance movement, led by Wovoka (1888) a. Wovoka had a vision that the Whites would disappear and Natives would gain their land back 10. Dec. 15, 1890, Indian police attempted to arrest chief Sitting Bull to stop the Ghost Dance Movement a. Sitting Bull killed, approx. 200 Indians fled to Pine Ridge Reservation 11. Wounded Knee Massacre at Pine Ridge, Dec 29, 1890 12. Around 250 Lakota killed; 25 soldiers killed 13. Wounded Knee marked the end of organized armed Native resistance on the Western Plains
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