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General Chemistry 2: 13.4 Notes

by: Enzo Lucci

General Chemistry 2: 13.4 Notes Chem 10061-001

Enzo Lucci
GPA 3.6
General Chemistry II
Dr. David Bowers

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About this Document

These notes are what is going to be covered on the next quiz and exam. Chapter 13 is one of the more challenging chapters in the course.
General Chemistry II
Dr. David Bowers
Class Notes
Chem 10061-001 general chemistry 2 13.4 notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Enzo Lucci on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 10061-001 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by Dr. David Bowers in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 02/23/16
135 Concentration Terms Extensive Properties gtdepend on mixture amount gtthey don t change gtEX mass Intensive properties gtdon t depend on mixture amount EX density Concentration definitions gtMolarity M mol of soluteL of solution gtMolality m mol of solutekg of solvent gtPart by mass mass of solutemass of solution gtparts by volume volume of solutevolume of solution gtMole fraction mol of solutemol of a solute mol of solvent gtparts per million mass of solutetotal mass of solution 10A6 136 Colligative Properties Solute changes physical properties in solvent Property Changes gtVapor pressure reduction gtboiling point elevation gtFreezing point depression gtosmotic pressure Colligative properties gtonly depend on amount of solute particles in solution gtin polar solvents the number of particles depends on whether solute is an electrolyte Electrolyte gtsubstance that conducts electricity when being dissolved into water Strong electrolyte gtsolute dissolves fully into ions Weak electrolyte gtbarely dissolves into ions Underlying Theme of colligative properties gtProperties occur when solute particles are unable to move between 2 phases gtThe solute s presence makes the mole pressure of the solvent decrease gtThis decreases the amount of solvent particles leaving the solution per unit time gtThis causes a need for a new balance of particles moving between 2 phases per unit time which results in the collegiate property gtAll the collegiate properties are used to find molecular weight gtOsmotic P gives the most accurate measurement 0 Nonvolatile Nonelectrolyte solutions gtVapor pressure is lowered gtWhen a nonvolatile solute is dissolved in a liquid the vapor pressure goes down 0 Entropy responsible gta liquid converting to a gas does not occur here gta solid increases formation of solution gtLess solvent molecules require vaporization in order to reach the same entropy wo a solution o Psolvent Xsolvent P solvent 0 AP Xsolute P solvent o HAP P solvent 39 Psolvent 0 Boiling point elevation gtsolutions boil at higher T than pure solvent gtDTb Kbm gtATb Tbsolution Tbsolvent gtKb molal boiling point elevation constant 0 Freezing point depression gtA solution freezes at a lower T gtATf Kfm gtwhere ATf TfSOlVBIlt Tfsolution gtKf molal freezing point depression constant 0 Osmotic Pressure gtOsmosiswhen a solvent goes through a semi permeable membrane from a dilute to a concentrated solution gtSemipermeable membrane only water can pass through but not the solvent gtOsmotic Pressure amount of pressure needed to prevent net water movement from solvent to solution gt139I M R T gtM molarity molL gtR 008206 L atmmol K gtT Kelvin 0 For formulas with electrolytes add in i at beginning of formula gti the number of particles in electrolyte EX In KCl i2


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