New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Introduction to Animal Diversity

by: Paola Araque

Introduction to Animal Diversity BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Art > BSC 116 > Introduction to Animal Diversity
Paola Araque
GPA 3.29

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

These notes include lecture 10 from Dr. Cherry's class
Principles Biology II
Dr. Cherry
Class Notes
Principles of Biology II
25 ?




Popular in Principles Biology II

Popular in Art

This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paola Araque on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cherry in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Art at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


Reviews for Introduction to Animal Diversity


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 02/23/16
Introduction to Animal Diversity and Early Animal Evolution    ❖ Non­Terrestrial Arthropod Invertebrates  ➢ Crustacea and other arthropods  ➢ Mollusca  ➢ Platyhelminthes  ➢ Nematoda  ➢ Annelida  ➢ Cnidaria  ➢ +27 more phyla  ❖ What is an animal?  ➢ multicellular eukaryotic heterotrophs  ➢ don’t have a cell wall, their supportcollagen  ➢ animals ingest their food and use enzymes to digest it   ➢ have muscle and nerve tissue  ❖ Characteristic early development of animals  ➢ Sexual Reproduction: diploid adults→haploid gametes  ➢ small flagellated sperm, and large eggs  ➢ After Fertilization:  ■ zygote→blastula→gastrula   ■ zygote undergoes 3 rounds of division→8 cell embryo  ■ hollow balls of cell surrounding the blastocoel cavity   ■ invagination of embryo→endoderm, ectoderm, and archenteron “pouch”  with the blastopore  ❖ Different Developmental Patterns  ➢ direct development: offspring looks like a smaller version of the parent   ■ mammals and some insects  ➢ indirect development: the young offspring (larvae) is different than the adults  ■ butterflies, mollusks, some insects  ❖ Where did animals come from?  ➢ Closest relative: colonial choanoflagellate protists   ❖ Paleozoic: began about 542 MYA  ➢ Permian (ends with Permian extinction)  ➢ Carboniferous (land invasion by vertebrates 360 MYA b/w carb. and devonian)  ➢ Devonian  ➢ Silurian  ➢ Ordovician (1st land invasion [plants] 460 MYA)   ➢ Cambrian (mostly marine)  ■ rapid increase in extant animal phyla  ■ decline in Edicarans  ❖ Proterozoic Eon  ➢ Edicaran  ❖ Archean Eon    ❖ Cenozoic: began about 65 MYA; diversification of large mammals (humans).   ➢ Quaternary  ➢ Neogene  ➢ Paleogene  ❖ Mesozoic: began 542 MYA; animals “bounce back” after Permian extinction.Ends with  Cretaceous Extinction (end of dinosaurs)  ➢ Cretaceous  ➢ Jurassic  ➢ Triassic  ❖ Animals have Conserved “Body Plans”   ➢ BROAD Patterns of Development   ➢ Hox genes control animal development for all but the simplest animals   ■ Regulate transcription of other genes   ■ Conserved across animal taxa  ■ Underwent series of duplications   ■ Flexible enough to permit diversity   ❖ Symmetry: more advanced animals bilaterally symmetrical   ➢ Asymmetry (sponges)  ➢ Radial Symmetry (sea anemone, jellyfish)  ➢ Bilateral Symmetry (most animals)  ❖ Gastrulation leads to embryonic tissues  ➢ Asymmetrical animals (sponges) lack tissues; cells can de­differentiate into other  cell types  ➢ Radial and bilateral animals undergo gastrulation:   ■ Archenteron:​ embryonic gut  ■ Endoderm:​  tissue lining gut  ■ Ectoderm: outer layers of cells, nervous system   ■ Radial Diploblasts​two tissues (endo­ and ectoderm)  ■ Bilateral Triploblastthree tissues (+ mesoderm)  ❖ Body Cavities of triploblasanimals:  ➢ consider the coelom​ (fluid­filled body cavity)  ➢ coelomates:​  lined with mesoderm  ■ has a tissue layer lining the coleum and suspending internal organs (from  mesoderm)  ➢ psuedocoelomates: ​ not completely lined with mesoderm; includes tissue derived  from endoderm  ■ has a muscle layer (from mesoderm)  ➢ acoelomates: ​ lack a body cavity  ■ has a wall of digestive cavity (from endoderm)  ■ has tissue filled region (from mesoderm)        ❖ Coelomates c ​an be protostomes or deuterostomes  ➢ Cleavage:  ■ inprotostome​ development the eight cell stagspiral and  determinate, and the cell fate is set early in development  ■ indeuterostome​  development the eight cell stagradial and  intermediate, the cell fate is NOT set early; each cell can develop into a  complete embryo  ➢ Coelom Formation:  ■ inprotostome​ development the eight cell stage solid masses of  mesoderm split and form coelom  ■ indeuterostome ​development the eight cell stage  folds of  archenteron from coleum  ➢ Fate of the Blastopore:  ■ inprotostome ​development the eight cell stagemouth​ develops from  blastopore  ■ indeuterostome ​the eight cell stage anus develops from blastopore  ❖ Animal Relationships: shaped by new morphological and molecular data  ➢ All animals share a common ancestor   ➢ sponges are a basal animal   ➢ eumetazoa is a clade of animals with true tissues  ➢ most animals belong to the Bilateria clade  ➢ 3 major clades of Bilateria:  ■ deuterstomia  ■ lophotrochozoa  ■ ecdysozoa  ❖ Major Animal Groups:   ➢ 5 Major Groups of animal phyla  ■ porifera: sponges  → no tissues or symmetry  ■ cnidaria: jellyfish, sea anemone, coral  ■ →diploblastic, radial symmetry  ■ lophotrochozoa: flatworms, mollusks, segmented worms  ■ → triploblastic, bilateral symmetry   ■ ecdysozoa: arthropods, nematodes → “ “  ■ deuterostomia: echinoderms, chordate→ “  “  ❖ Phylum Porifera: Sponges  ➢ body: water flows in through holes (ostia) and ouosculum  ■ filter feeders  ➢ inner and outer layer of cells separated by gelatimesohyl  ➢ skeleton of firmspongin​, or hard calcium carbonate or silica  ➢ most are hermaphrodites  ➢ cross fertilization when gametes released to water column    ❖ Developmental biology and animal body plans  ➢ asymmetry, radial, bilateral  ➢ endo­, ecto­, meso­derm  ➢ coelomates, psuedocoelomates, acoelomates   


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Allison Fischer University of Alabama

"I signed up to be an Elite Notetaker with 2 of my sorority sisters this semester. We just posted our notes weekly and were each making over $600 per month. I LOVE StudySoup!"

Bentley McCaw University of Florida

"I was shooting for a perfect 4.0 GPA this semester. Having StudySoup as a study aid was critical to helping me achieve my goal...and I nailed it!"

Parker Thompson 500 Startups

"It's a great way for students to improve their educational experience and it seemed like a product that everybody wants, so all the people participating are winning."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.