Sexual Arousal, Response, and Desire notes
Sexual Arousal, Response, and Desire notes CDFR 4006
Popular in Families, Sexuality, and Gender
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Shabree Bost on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CDFR 4006 at a university taught by Dr. Kate Harcourt in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Sexual Arousal, Response, and Desire Male and Female anatomy o Please google and print images for yourself with labels and re-watch module one video. Theories of Gender Differences in Sexual Desire o Biology Hormones o Sociobiology Strategies of sexual reproduction Some genes are favored over others o Social Construction Cue from the environment o Integrative Combination of social context and biology Sexual Desire o The wish, drive, or motivation to engage in sexual activities, or the anticipation of sexual pleasure in the future o Not the same thing as physiological, or genital, sexual arousal o Can engage in sexual behavior without desire o Cognitive (wishes, thoughts, and desires) o Physical (genital arousal) o Psychosexual (senses) o Commonly referred to as libido o Defined in various different ways o Humans need to have sex Inborn need and drive Men’s Sexual Desire o Men more often than women Think about sex Report having sexual fantasies Have a stronger sexual desire Want sex more frequently Emphasize sexual pleasure and sexual intercourse when describing sexual desire Women’s Sexual Desire o Women more often than men Emphasize interpersonal aspects (goals, love, intimacy) Engage in sex to enhance relationship commitment Have sex to express love Sexual Arousal o The stimulation of sexual desire in preparation for sexual behavior o Heightened physiological and emotional activity that produces change in the body’s response o Experience sexual pleasure when aroused Sexual pleasure- positive feelings that arise from sexual arousal o Foreplay Builds sexual arousal Often a way women reach orgasm Time to experiment o Hormones Come from the endocrine system Oxytocin Uterine contractions ( during labor and orgasm) Increase penile sensitivity Testosterone= most important androgen Comes from Adrenal glands, testes, and ovaries Levels change daily Levels in blood decrease with age o Brain Interprets stimuli o Cerebral Cortex Controls fantasies and mental functioning o Limbic system Emotions, motivations, memories, behavioral drives, interprets sensory inputs o Erogenous zones (Touch) Areas with a dense pop. of nerve endings Differs from person to person Primary and secondary Primary includes genitals, butt, anus, breast, neck, mouth, etc.. Secondary become eroticized over the course of the sexual encounter. o Vision Sexual arousal from sight o Smell Learn through experience to view certain odors as erotic for them o Taste Research is unclear about the role Could be important for some Some like the body taste Food Aphrodisiacs o Food that resembles male external genitals o Ground up horn of animals The word horny comes from ground up Rhino horns o Oysters, champagne, and caviar o Blood of bat mixed with donkey milk, etc… o Alcohol and other drugs o People who enjoy food as part of the act o Sound Words, moans, music Sexual Response o Individual process o Physical, emotional, and mental process o Two models of explanation ( Masters & Johnson and Kaplan) Masters & Johnson’s 4-phase Model of Sexual Response o 1. Excitement o 2. Plateau o 3. Orgasm o 4. Resolution Excitement Female response o Vasocongestion o Erection of nipples o Myotonia o Increased heart rate o Increased blood pressure o Sex flush o Lubrication o Uterus raises slightly Male response o Vasocongestion o Erection of nipples o Myotonia o Increased heart rate o Increased blood pressure o Sex flush o Skin of scrotum thickens o Testes increase in size o Testes and scrotum are pulled up closer to the body Plateau Female response o Sex flush o Rapid breathing o Increase in blood pressure and heart rate o Vasocongestion swells the outer 1/3 of vagina = orgasmic platform o Uterus becomes fully elevated o Clitoris withdraws beneath hood o Breast become swollen o Bartholin’s glands secrete lubrication Male response o Sex flush o Rapid breathing o Increase in blood pressure and heart rate o Testes may increase in size by 50% and rise o Cowper’s gland secrete fluid o Glans of penis becomes swollen Orgasm ( shortest phase) Female response o Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing peak o Rhythmic muscle contractions ( pelvis, uterus, and anal sphincter) o Some women ejaculate fluid Male response o Heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing peak o Ejaculation has to happen o Muscle contractions at the base of the penis and anus o Semen expelled Benefits of orgasm o Pain relief (can possibly cure migraines o Mood enhancement o Better sleep o Better health o Loner life o Reduced stress o Younger appearance o Better sexual health Resolution Female response o Body returns to unexcited state o Drowsiness and relaxation o No refractory period Can experience multiple orgasms Male response o Body returns to unexcited state o Drowsiness and relaxation o Refractory period Time before another erection can be achieved Kaplan’s 3 stage model of sexual response o 1. Desire o 2. Excitement o 3. Orgasm o Suggested that sexual difficulties are in one of these three stages o Can be independent (excitement but no orgasm, etc…) Masturbation o Stimulation of one’s own genitals o Mutual masturbation o Safe o Way to become familiar with own body and partners body o Effective treatment for premature ejaculation and orgasmic disorders o Sleep aid o Release sexual tension o Way for people later in life to fulfil sexual needs o Reduces anxiety Sex with others o Oral sex Cunnilingus: erotic stimulation of the women’s external sex organs Fellatio: oral stimulation of the male’s external sex organs Over 80% of people 15-44 have engages in oral sex o Anal intercourse or anal eroticism Not only for homosexual men 1 in 10 female and male adolescents have engaged in heterosexual anal sex Nearly 30% of men and women 15-44 o Coitus- process in which the penis is inserted into the vagina Face to face, rear-entry (not anal), side-lying are most common o Lesbian sexual activities Some research suggest no difference Some research suggest less frequent sexual intercourse Genital stimulation and tribadism o Gay sexual activities Highest frequency of sex Oral sex, anal sex, interfemoral intercourse Fantasizing about sex o Sexual fantasies- sexual thoughts and images created to help provide an outlet for sexual feelings o Most common form of human sexual experience o Online sexual activity 13% of web sites visits are to sex cites About half of undergraduate college students report viewing sex cites Cybersex compulsion Kama Sutra o Thought of as an ancient sex manual o Only 10 of the 36 chapters are devoted to sex Describes 64 types of sexual acts o Ancient Indian text that addresses the Hindu aims and priorities of life o Kama= wish, desire, intention, pleasure and priorities of life o Sutra= signifies a thread of discussions of concise rules o Kama Sutra= the rules of pleasure, desire, and intentions o Often confused with tantric sex Sexual Dysfunction o Women Hypoactive sexual desire- persistent absence of sexual desire, thoughts, or motivation to become aroused Most common in women Accompanied by low levels of excitement and infrequent orgasms Sexual aversion disorder- disgust, fear, and revulsion at the thought of a genital act with a partner Female sexual arousal disorder- absent, or very noticeable reduced feelings of sexual arousal and pleasure Lack of lubrication associated Anorgasmia- persistent delay or absence of orgasm after normal sexual excitement phase Women experience lower rates of orgasm than men 65% of females and 95% of men in most recent sexual experience o Upbringing, attitudes, religion, anxiety, traumatic experiences can influence ability to get an orgasm Dyspareunia- recurrent genital pain by sexual activity Vaginismus- involuntary spasm of the muscles around the lower 1/3 of the vagina o Men One of the most common health problems in men Low libido Contradicts social norms Erectile dysfunction- the inability to develop and/or maintain a firm erection long enough Can occur at any age Most men experience it from time to time Rapid (premature) ejaculation- occurs before, upon, or shortly after penetration with minimal simulation Variations in sexual arousal and behavior o Paraphilias are recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors generally involving: non-human objects suffering or humiliation of oneself or one’s partner children or other non-consenting persons more common in men than women o Common Paraphilias Fetishism- a fixation on an object of body part Can be extreme or mild Masochism- psychological or physical suffering being inflicted on them Not always two consenting people Sadism-inflicting psychological or physical suffering on another person Sadomasochism- person who can get sexually gratified from being both a masochist and a sadist Exhibitionism Exposes genitals to strangers Primary motive is victims reaction Voyeurism Looking for unsuspecting individuals who are naked, undressing, or engaging in sexual activity Sexual gratification increases with risk of being caught Pedophilia Sexual fantasies, urges, and behavior involving a child of children Most victims are young girls ages 8-11 Most pedophiles are male, over 50, mid-to-late 30s, or teens Most are heterosexual and may be married fathers Frotteurism Sexual arousal and gratification by rubbing one’s genitals against others in public Beastiality Sexual behavior with animals Zoophilia When beastiality becomes the preferred (or only) means of sexual gratification May involve sadistic acts toward animals o Less common paraphilias Coprophilia Sexual excitement focused on feces Urophilia Sexual excitement from urine and urination Necrophilia Sexual gratification from having intercourse with a dead body
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