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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Victoria Notetaker on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2310 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Dr. Lawrence Cohn in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Life Cycle Developmemt in Psychlogy at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
02-16-16 Quiz 2 Demonstration: Student blindfolded with tie o Placed round dog toy with red nubs all over it in hand for 30 seconds o Then placed Rubik’s cube and dog toy on the desk and ask student to id what was in his hand Texture, shape, density lead to his decision We take this advanced capability for granted o Had to have a concept of round and nubby o OR sensory stimulation was transmitting signal to visual preceptors Piaget and others thought the feeling, dropping, mouthing of items leads to sensory integration o Andy Meltzoff does similar study with 1 month old babies and 2 types of pacifiers o One nubby pacifier and one smooth o Give babies nubby pacifier to suck on then removes without allowing baby to see the pacifier o Babies tended to stared at the pacifier which was in their mouth longer 1 month babies able to visually discern item from tactile exposure (familiar) Expt 1 How did they recognize the familiar pacifier??? Had to have a concept of round and nubby versus smooth Suggest babies have primitive concept or tactile info received was transferred to the visual receptors Meltzoff also does study with 2-3 wk old babies and facial expression imitation o Stands over baby and sticks tongue out, opens mouth, and pooches lips out (kissy face) o Previously believed not capable until 1 yr (Piaget and others) Believed babies had to touch face in order to reproduce expression o Exhibit some capacity to replicate simple facial expressions Cross-modal perception o Guarding against reflexive response with pacifier method REFER TO PICS TO ELABORATE o Confound: 2-3 week-old babies had some exposure to mirrors o Redoes study with 0-2 day-old babies with no mirror exposure o Has two monitors one showing Meltzoff face one showing baby’s face o Coders blind to condition because only coding one monitor o Meltzoff coder doesn’t know what baby is doing o Baby coder doesn’t know what Meltzoff is doing Compare results: found babies still tended to replicate face seen o Ability present at 2 days after birth leads to possibility of innate ability 2 TIME “HOW A CHILD’S BRAIN DEVELOPS” o What should parents be doing to assist development?? Refer to 25 day- 9 months prenatal brain development diagram Refer to synaptic picture o After birth synaptic connections begin to develop, transient exuberance (an explosion of synapses) Joke: babies have more synapses then the pediatrician Refer to Age and Brain weight chart o Increase in brain weight due to the synaptic connection (dendrite connections) increasing and the development of myelin covering on axons (myelination) o Since 1999 and 2000 findings that there is a period in pre-pubertal development where there is an increase in synaptic density then synaptic pruning o Activities of adolescence stay and not used die out Ex. High drug use imprint and things not attempted like violin die out 1785 began to study if experience influences brain development o Took a litter of dog and birds o Expose some to a lot of stimuli o Keep other from exposure o Dissect animals and find more convolutions in brains of stimulated (experience) animals Marian Diamond and Mark Rosensweig 1960’s 3 Used baby rats (4-10 weeks old) initially 16 studies: o Took one and placed in a well lit, safe cage, well fed and watered and taken care of (impoverished environment) o Other baby rats placed in a cage with other baby rats, climbing boards, bowls (enriched environment) o Dissection showed noticeable differences between impoverished and enriched rats. Enriched rats did better. o Study lead to baby enrichment programs Confounds: researcher handling of the rats o Researchers blind to the condition so no handling is different. o What is an enriched environment o Is it the social or physical stimuli that promote the results? EXAM postponed to Tuesday 02-23-16 02-18-16 Social Development o Growth of attachment st 1 yr. o Sense of self: knowing who you are 2 ndyr. Marian Diamond and Mark Rosensweig 1960’s Used baby rats (4-10 weeks old) initially 16 studies: 4 o Took one and placed in a well lit, safe cage, well fed and watered and taken care of (impoverished environment) o Other baby rats placed in a cage with other baby rats, climbing boards, bowls (enriched environment) o Dissection showed noticeable differences between impoverished and enriched rats’ brain. Enriched rats brain more developed. Although these differences aren’t big they are consistent. o Study lead to baby enrichment programs like Head start Confounds: researcher handling of the rats o Researchers blind to the condition so no handling is different. o What is an enriched environment o Is it the social or physical stimuli that promote the results? Conclusion: Class feedback o Experience is important o Social stimulation may be important Language development: critical period Loose ability to gain language if isolation is severe enough o Enriched environment increases brain development Looks like critical for the developing brain What is an enriched environment? Follow up study done by Diamond and Rosensweig 5 o Took one wild Deer mouse from a litter and raised it in an everyday Deer mouse environment Sand, log, little rocks, so on o Took one wild Deer mouse from a litter and raised it in an enriched environment Toys, other mice, so on Deer Mice in “non-enriched environment” had more developed brains o Operational definition of enriched environment? Lots of toy, other mice, slant board, so on o Findings show there is plenty of stimulus in our natural environments (Everyday Deer Mouse cage) If you hear about articles or studies talking about enriched environments you have to ask your self what is enriched? o Baby’s natural environment has faces, sounds, smells, different visual stimuli, so on 1 issue operationalization 2 ndwhat is an enriched environment o Romania children locked away o As a parent you have to ask what is best for your baby, keep in mind the following study Newborn kittens don’t open eye and learn about environment through their whiskers, homing done through nonvisual stimuli o Researchers surgically opened the eyes prior to natural occurrence and found kittens stop homing. o Kittens were not ready to receive the increase in stimuli and brain development slowed down. If you present a 1yr old infant with a matrix 6 o Busy visual stimulation 20 pattern Baby will shutdown and close eyes o Show baby a simple checker board pattern Baby with not shutdown and close eyes Mark Twain: the child is but a prophecy of the man o What the child is like a prophecy of what the adult will be like What early experiences and personalities will impact adult life? Plato: the baby that is rocked frequently will become a better athlete o Early motor experiences improves later motor ability The hand that rocks the cradle shapes destiny o Child’s caretaker influences the development o One of Sigmund Freud’s ideas: whatever happens within the first 3 yrs. sets the stage for the next 80 yrs. Determinism John Watson: give me a dozen healthy infants, well formed and my own specified world to bring them up and that’s how I’ll shape them and I can take any of them and train them to any trade o Not nature but nurture Conrad Lorenz: found if you take baby duckling away from mother immediately after birth prior to it seeing its mother and then move in front of it, the duckling will follow you wherever you go. 7 o Imprinting: imprints on the first moving object seen (typically the mother) in wildlife o Varies between species st Ducks and Guinea pigs: 1 36 hours o Once imprinted it is too late for attachment to another Is there imprinting in humans and is there a critical period? o No research suggests there is an equivalent thus far. o Attachment and object permanence 1980’s study: 100 mothers and newborns in Jamaica, natural births o ½ of mothers advised to glimpse at baby then baby goes to well-baby checkup o Other ½ mothers held the babies on the chest for 45 minutes before well-baby check up (contact mothers) o At 3 months return for well-baby check up Almost all of the contact mothers rose to watch what the doctor was doing Only 50% of non-contact mothers rose to see what the doctor was doing Babies who were held after birth cried less, less restless, less likely to be sleeping Newborns are not social isolates o Seem to be primed for human interaction Video observation o Attractive object brought within reach Fixates and reaches 8 When satiated turns away o Mother Baby moves closer to mother then away when mother gets closer (swan-dance like) Reaction different with human stimulus Attachment o 48 hours: show preference for mother’s face over another woman’s o 1950-1960’s attachment through satisfaction of physical needs Showed picture of baby nursing on a statue Harry Harlow: developed an animal model of human attachment o Babies who nurse become more attached to surrogate mother or not o Monkeys removed from mothers right after birth o Cage 1 wire mesh mother with baby bottle at top o Cage 2 wire mesh mother covered in terrycloth with baby bottle at top o Timed amount of time spent with surrogate mother o Test attachment by scaring monkeys and seeing which surrogate mother the monkey runs to. Confounds Two universal signs of attachment o Stranger anxiety predictable between 6-12 months of age o Compare what is and thought not to be 6-12 months 9 1965-1993 regardless of age of child more women were joining workforce o Gave example of his wife o Strange situation Mary Ainsworth: 1 yr. of age baby placed on a rug with toys around 27 minute scripted interaction Mother and baby left in room alone for 3 mins Baby is stimulated to explore the room Then mother, stranger and baby in room for 3 mins 1 min stranger silent 2 min stranger approaches baby 3 min mother leaves Mother leaves, only stranger and baby 3 mins If baby becomes distressed episode cut short Reunion episode mother returns and stranger leaves 3 mins Baby left alone 3 mins Stranger returns 3 mins Mother returns 3 mins o Scare the baby, who will the baby run to due to attachment? o Securely attached: explore freely once placed on rug Important: baby is curious and learns about environment through experience, would look back at mother as base, whenever mother 10 returned always happy and wanted to be picked up At age 3 found to be more curious than the others More self driven More sought out by peers (socially liked) More likely to seek help from teacher o Insecurely attached ambivalent: did not explore room, stayed by mom , cried when she left, when mother returned would want to pick up but would push away from her as well o Insecurely attached avoidant: did not cry when mother left and did not want to be picked up upon return Japanese researcher found 2-4 month old babies would show “distress” o Measured skin temp as mother and stranger watched baby o Mother would leave and skin temp would drop showing distress Discussed daycare issue o If high quality daycare the effect is not detrimental 2 ndyear of life self awareness o Does chimp see themselves in mirror and realize it is them or think it is another chimp o 9 months-24 months babies placed in front of mirror then wipes some red lipstick on nose Will baby rub nose when see the dot? 11 Target directed behavior: rubbing nose when see the dot o 9 months no babies showed TDB o 12 months touch mirror but no TDB o 15 months only 19% show behavior TDB o 18 months only 25% TDB o 21 months 69% TDB o 24 months 75% TDB Somewhere between 18-24 months self awareness 12
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