PSYC 474, Week 5 notes
PSYC 474, Week 5 notes Psyc 474
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Clarissa Hinshaw on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 474 at Northern Illinois University taught by Ellen Lee in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see Psychological Basis of Sexuality in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Chapter 6 Gender Biological sex: our sex, based on whether we possess xx, xy, or another combination of chromosomes. Assigned sex: the sex we are legally assigned at birth solely based on the appearance of our external genitalia. Gender: our social and psychological construct of whether we are female, male, or another gender. The father determines the biological sex of his offspring. Each child receives one x chromosome from their mother and usually one x or one y chromosome from their father. Children possessing 2 x chromosomes usually develop female genitalia, and those possessing the xy combination usually develop male genitalia. Gonads are undifferentiated for the first 5 to 6 weeks of gestation, then usually developed by chromosomal and hormonal guides after. Some people believe sex chromosomes play a role in gender stereotypical behavior. Testosterone and estrogen also play a role in how genitals develop. Without either of these hormones, babies would have female looking genitalia, but be infertile. Cryptorchidism: when testes don’t descend during gestation. Some will descend during infancy or puberty. The others are usually surgically or hormonally treated because undescended testicles can cause the child to become infertile or have a higher chance of testicular cancer. Some chromosomal abnormalities o Klinefelter Syndrome: xxy combination. Usually assigned as male, but fail to develop secondary sex characteristic and show female secondary sex characteristics. These people are usually infertile. o Turner syndrome: xo combination. Usually assigned as female, don’t go through female puberty without hormone treatment and usually have other health problems. Can sometimes conceive children through invitro fertilization. o These are only some the chromosomal abnormalities. These happen in about 10 15% of the population, and many you will never know about. Unless you have had your chromosomes tested, you will never know for sure if your biological sex is female, male, or another combination, even if your genitalia are normally developed and you are fertile. Gender identity: a person’s sense of being female, male, or another gender. Their gender identity does not always match the sex they were assigned at birth. There has been great debate over what has influenced gender identity: nature, nurture, or a combination of both. Intersex: a combination of female and male genitalia. These happen in a least 5% of the population. The real number will never be known because, because many are surgically reassigned at birth without even telling the parents. o Hermaphrodites: people who have testes and ovaries. o Congenital adrenal hyperplasia: people with female chromosomes and internal organs, but male external genitalia o Androgen insensitivity syndrome: genetic males who’s masculine genitals are deformed and femalelooking because they lack testosterone. o Dominican Republic Syndrome: genetic males with a large clitoris, undescended testicles, and partially formed female external genitalia. More testosterone is developed at puberty, causing these people’s testes to descend and clitorises to grow into penises, often out of surprise. Most of these people identity as male in adulthood, despite being raised as girls. Transgender: a person whose gender identity does not match their sex assigned at birth o Transsexual: a medical term often used for transpeople who have medically transitioned in some way through sex reassignment surgery, other sex change surgeries, or hormone treatment. Physical transition is not necessary to be transgender and this term is starting to die out in the trans community. o Transwoman: a person assigned male at birth who identifies as female, usually goes by female pronouns (she, her, hers). o Transman: a person assigned female at birth who identifies as male, usually uses male pronouns (he, him, his). o Genderqueer: a person who identifies outside of the male/female binary. These people may possess masculine and feminine personality traits, dress in a combination of ways, or dress one way and act another. Genderqueer people usually use neutral pronouns (ex: they, them, their) o Genderfluid: people who may identify as female some days, male others, or neither other days. o These are only some of the gender identities under the transgender umbrella. There are debated to be many more. Transpeople who have had reassignment surgery can still have sex and often obtain orgasm. Reassignment surgery does not implant internal organs. Transpeople often feel different from a young age and engage in play not typical for children of their assigned sex. Other sex change surgeries include top surgery (breast implants or tissue removal), voice box surgery (to raise pitch of voice), shaving of the Adam’s apple, and facial feminization surgery. Usually required to live as the other sex before reassignment surgery. Gender roles and stereotypes o Stereotype: a widespread belief about a group of people. Example: women are emotional, men are tough. o Gender roles: social and occupational expectations for people of each gender. Example: in the 1950s, men were expected to be breadwinners and women were homemakers. o Sexism: negative ideas about a person because they belong to a specific gender group. Example: women not being able to handle men’s occupations because they are ‘too emotional to think logically’. Sexism can also occur for people who don’t follow gender stereotypes. Examples: women who are assertive can be seen as bitchy, and men who are sensitive can be seen as sissies. There are divides in certain occupations as either men’s work or women’s work. Sexism is psychologically damaging to people of all genders, not just women. Gender Roles and sexual behavior o Kids learn from an early age how men initiate and women are submissive in relationships. Gender difference theories o Women are thought to have better speech ability in the US, but these statics are different in other countries. o Men are perceived as having visiospacial and math abilities o Parents tend to prefer boys over girls o Women often have to perform significantly better at tasks to be seen as equal to men. o Boys tend to participate and cause more trouble in classes than girls. o Men tend to be more interested in sex and women tend to value romance more. o Men are seen as more aggressive than women o Women are more likely to seek health care. o Many of these differences change in different societies, depending on how the people are socialized. Gender typing perspectives o Biological perspective: the differences between the genders are natural and cannot be changed. o Evolutionary: the genders are different because of practical reasons. They adapted behaviors to survive and passed those traits down through DNA. o Psychological: we are aware of gender stereotypes from a young age and prefer those behaviors accordingly. o Psychoanalytic: Freud’s view saying kids identify with the same sex parent and show sexual attraction toward the other one. o Social cognitive: gender typing is taught by socialization. Parents teach children stereotypical behaviors from a young age and this creates gender typing. Example: girls are encouraged to play with dolls and boys are encouraged to play with trucks. o CognitiveDevelopmental: relied on 3 concepts Gender identity: a person’s sense of their gender and what gender they feel in their soul. Gender stability: the concept of retaining one’s gender Gender constancy: belief of gender not changing, no matter how one dresses. This refers more to sex, as gender can be fluid in some transpeople. o Gender schema: how a person views physical qualities, behaviors, and personality traits going along with sex and gender identity. Regardless of gender identity, people can have a psychologically androgenous gender expression, possessing masculine and feminine personality traits. This theory has been criticized by feminist theory.