HIST10 wk7 lecture notes
HIST10 wk7 lecture notes Hist 10
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christien Ng on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
The Rise & Fall of the Mongols Thursday, February 18, 2016 1:41 PM Mongols Temujin 1162-1227 AD Genghis Khan 1206 Kalka River Mstislav Russia 1240 Germany/Hungary 1241 Baghdad 1258 Ain Jalut 1260 Kublian Khan 1264-1294 • Mongol Empire ○ Largest empire in history, but lasted for a short time • Mongols came from Mongolia ○ Originated in East Asia, North of China • The Mongols were a barbarian tribe • Did not have agriculture/ grow their own food ○ The took most everything they needed from their animals § The food they ate, the mild they drank, clothes they wore, tents they lived in, alcohol they drank ○ They were constantly moving from one place to another, looking for land which their animals could graze; keep them healthy and happy § Because of this, they had no settled homes, did not build things, had very little property (to make traveling easier) ○ No works of art, no reading/writing system • Barbarian tribes often had a big impact on history: war ○ Spent most of their time either training/fighting ○ Had to be able to defend their animals and the land upon which they grazed No works of art, no reading/writing system ○ • Barbarian tribes often had a big impact on history: war ○ Spent most of their time either training/fighting ○ Had to be able to defend their animals and the land upon which they grazed ○ Bc they liked to fight, war was fun § Sitting around in peace was "weak" § Were much greater fighters than civilized peoples § Developed superior military technology ○ J • The Mongols were in many ways a typical barbarian tribe, but they would prove to be the most successful barbarian tribe, conquering the largest empire seen in history • 2mill Mongols living in Mongolia • Never before had the Mongols been unified ○ Spent as much time attacking each other as foreign states 1162AD • Temujinis born (1162 -1227AD) • Led to very difficult times fro Temujin and his family, but he was able to overcome his difficult origins • Slowly gained more and more followers as he grew and was eventually able to unify the Mongol peoples under his rule 1206AD • Mongolia is unified under 1 leader, Temujin ○ To commemorate this event, important Mongols came from all over Mongolia to a great council being held by Temujin and proclaimed Temujin as their new leader and in recognition, they gave him a new title: theGenghis Khan § "leader of everything from ocean to ocean" • Genghis Khan wanted to conquer an empire bc: 1. He believed Mongolia was too small for the growing number of Mongol people § Needed more living space and need to go conquer more land to accommodate the people 2. He knew how war -like the Mongols were § Believed if he did not find new enemies for the Mongols to fight, they would inevitable start fighting again amongst themselves 3. He believed war was fun • M 1206-1227AD Genghis Khan led his people to the conquest of a large empire; the largest yet seen in the history of Asia • The Mongols conquered a huge empire from Middle East to the Pacific Ocean • Reasons for success: 1. Great leadership • M 1206-1227AD Genghis Khan led his people to the conquest of a large empire; the largest yet seen in the history of Asia • The Mongols conquered a huge empire from Middle East to the Pacific Ocean • Reasons for success: 1. Great leadership § Genghis Khan was a great general, as were many of his sons and grandsons § Genghis Khan was not a typical barbarian leader □ He tried things that would not be done until much later in history ® Ex) He would use spies on his enemies before he would attack anyone ◊ How big was their army, how good their army/general was ◊ Would be learned ahead of time before attack 2. Had a very big and a very good army § ~200,000 soldiers, all were cavalry § The soldiers would spend all their time fighting/training § They had a lot of endurance § Were in much greater shape than the soldiers they were fighting against § Had bigger, stronger horses § Mongols and their horses could ride for very long periods of time, quickly; take enemies by surprise □ Moved faster and further than any army in history § Developed a superior bow □ Could fire arrows 350yds &250yds § Used terror as a weapon □ If anyone resisted, they would hesitate to wipe out whole populations □ Demand that people surrender before attacking ® Those that did surrender were taxed (~10%) and were allowed to keep their culture, do their own thing ® Those that didn't surrender were demolished 1223AD • Mongols fought the battle of the Kalka River ○ Fought in Southern Russia § Russia at this time was not a unified country § It was divided into dozens of independent states ○ vs General Prince Mstislav"Mstislav the daring" ○ Mongols sent spies to here § Learned that they had ~80,000 unprofessional soldiers □ Most of these soldiers had other jobs and would only go into § Russia at this time was not a unified country § It was divided into dozens of independent states ○ vs General Prince Mstislav"Mstislav the daring" ○ Mongols sent spies to here § Learned that they had ~80,000 unprofessional soldiers □ Most of these soldiers had other jobs and would only go into the army in an emergency/crisis ® Spent very little time actually training § Learned that Mstislav was a very good military commander ○ Mongols sent 20,000 soldiers to attack Mstislav ○ Mstislav let out his 80,000 men to defend his country § Mongols came to attack but then pretend to flee out of fear § Mstislav chases the Mongols, but eventually tire out § The Mongols then turn around and attack &win • Unlike others, they did not practice Ogedei 1240AD • The Mongols complete the conquest of Russia • The first succesful invasion of Russia ○ Mongolia succeeded where Napoleon and Hitler failed 1241AD • After Russia, the Mongols moved into Europe ○ One Mongol Army moved West into Germany § Had heavy armor which made them slow and still did not protect them from the bows of the Mongols The other went Southwest intH ungary ○ • They win both J Went back to Mongol to choose a new leader Pulled armies out of Europe and leave them in Russia Mongols would never again try to conquer Europe The death of Ogedei saved Europe from Mongol conquest 1258 • Mongol expansion continues into the Middleast ○ Baghdadis captured ○ Population is massacred • Mongol armies continue west 1260 • Arrive on shores of the Mediterranean • But, Mongol leader in Mongolia dies ○ All important Mongols must go back and choose a new leader ○ Pull back most of their armies ○ 10,000 soldiers left stationed at Ain Jalut • Egypt was an independent Muslim country • Arrive on shores of the Mediterranean • But, Mongol leader in Mongolia dies ○ All important Mongols must go back and choose a new leader ○ Pull back most of their armies 10,000 soldiers left stationed at Ain Jalut ○ • Egypt was an independent Muslim country ○ When they realized that the Mongols pulled back and there were only 10,000 left in Ain Jalut, 40,000 Egyptian soldiers marched out and fought those 10,000 Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut ○ Egyptians defeat the Mongols ○ First upset for the Mongols in 54yrs § They are not invincible § Motivates people to rise up against rebellion/ defend themselves against the Mongols • Back in Mongolia, they could not agree on a new leader, so a civil war breaks out ○ First time in 54yrs (since unification by Genghis Khan) that they fight eachother ○ K • KublikanKahn ○ They accepted him as their leader ○ As a result, the Mongol empire split apart and would never be reunified 1264AD • Mongols would never conquer any more territories • Lost their military edge ○ No longer training/fighting • Mongol empire begins to break down • Mongol empire was important to history be all that land was under 1 gov • made it relatively easy for people to travel around the world • There was a great exchange of goods, etc • Marco Polo ○ Italian sailor wo journeyed Asia • Columbus, inspired by Marco Polo • Marked the end of 5000yrs of human history of Mongols of war The Empires of Africa Tuesday, February 16, 2016 1:43 PM Sudan Ghana 300-1100AD Mali Sundiata Keita 1230-1255 Mansa Musa 1312-1337 primogeniture Songhai Sonni Ali 1464-1492 Baru 1492-1493 Muhammad Askia 1493-1528 Sultan al-Mandur Tondibi 1591 • Islam had a big impact on sub -Saharan Africa (Sudan) ○ In Sudan, 3 of Africa's greatest kingdoms will arise, the latter two were greatly affected by the religion Islam ○ Peoples of the Sudan live south of the Sahara desert and north and west of the great tropical rainforests of Africa ○ It was based on 2 large rivers: the Senegal River and the Niger River ○ Africa was not a suitable place for civilization mainly bc of climate (desert, rainforests ○ Sudan was livable; had a mild climate, plenty of rainfall, the two major rivers which provided plenty of water for people and crops, the land around the rivers was extremely fertile to support the large population, the rivers acted as highways making it relatively easy to make it to one part of the Sudan to the other ○ Was also conducive to the rise of large states, since any gov that controlled the rivers, controlled Sudan ○ In the Sudan, there were many different ethnic groups the rivers acted as highways making it relatively easy to make it to one part of the Sudan to the other ○ Was also conducive to the rise of large states, since any gov that controlled the rivers, controlled Sudan ○ In the Sudan, there were many different ethnic groups § They were Africans, but they were divided among religion, language culture, etc § Sudan had been populated for thousands of years, but civilizations did not arrive there until ~300AD ○ The rise of civilizations in Sudan coincided with the camel in Sudan § The camel is the "ship" of the desert § The arrival of the camel made it relatively easy to travel across the Sahara desert (before it usually took ~2mo to get across, □ The Sahara becomes the "window" to the outside world ® In the middle of the desert, there were oasis (islands) for travelers to stop ® In the northern parts, there was the northern part of the sea ® The Sudan becomes a part of the lon-gdistance trade network ○ The development of trade was important bc it was the basis of the development of these great civilizations § It was through trade that they made their money § Trade brought incredible wealth that financed these civilizations □ It paid for the various governments that developed □ The large armies & navies □ Art, architecture, etc ○ Throughout this period, the main commodities for trade were: § Gold □ The rainforest just to the south of the Sudan were rich in gold ("the Gold Coast") □ The basis of wealthy status § Salt □ Was not found in Sudan □ Had to go out into the Sahara desert and mine for salt □ Was incredibly important for survival of the civilizations □ Makes food taste better and helps preserve food also □ During this period, it was of equal value to gold ® Mine salt, trade for gold, trade gold for anything anywhere for anything they needed • 3 major states would develop in Sudan; all with different ethnic groups ○ Ghana (~300-1100AD) § The wealth and power of Ghana was based on trade § Not a lot is known about Ghana bc they had no system of ® Mine salt, trade for gold, trade gold for anything anywhere for anything they needed • 3 major states would develop in Sudan; all with different ethnic groups ○ Ghana (~300-1100AD) § The wealth and power of Ghana was based on trade § Not a lot is known about Ghana bc they had no system of writing/written history § After the fall of Ghana, a new state eventually rose called the Kingdom of Mali § Mand most responsible for establishing this kingdom was Sundiata Keita (king from 1230-1255) □ Conquered most (but not all) of the Sudan □ Not only was he important for establishing the kingdom, but he was the first leader in the Sudan to convert to Islam ® Did not force his subjects to adopt the religion, but many of his followers followed in his pursuit □ Had a big impact bc the people of the Sudan now adopted the Arabic system of writing and the culture of Sudan □ People from the Sudan attended universities in the Muslim world; as a result, universities were established in Sudan ® The University of Tim Buk Two became famous for it's center of learning ◊ Meant that there were a lot of well -educated people to help run the gov The gov of Mali became more efficient } § By far the most famous king of Mali was great nephew of Sundiata Keita, Mansa Musa (1312-1337) □ During his reign, the wealth and power of Mali became famous □ Mali was at the time the 2nd largest empire on Earth □ The incredible wealth of Mansa Musa was legendary □ Big reason for his fame: he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca ® He took with him 60,000 of his subjects, 2,000pounds of gold to pay for everything along the way, gave most of his money to charity ® Thanks to Mansa Musa, there was so much gold in circulation, the value of gold dropped dramatically ® By this time, everyone knew about the great power of Mansa Musa • After the raid on Mansa Musa, Mali began to decline ○ One big problem: peoples of the Sudan did not practice primidenture § Power went to the oldest son § If has no sons, power automatically goes to his relatives § Usually, this cuts down on trouble Mansa Musa • After the raid on Mansa Musa, Mali began to decline ○ One big problem: peoples of the Sudan did not practice primidenture § Power went to the oldest son § If has no sons, power automatically goes to his relatives § Usually, this cuts down on trouble □ However some states did not practice this □ This often led to civil war 1400 • Empire ofS onghaiis established • Sonni Ali("Ali the Great") 1464 -1492AD ○ During his reign, the people of Songhai had conquered all of Sudan and the oasis in the Sahara desert and some of the northern parts of the Sahara desert § Since they controlled the southern ports, some of the oasis, and some of the northern ports, that allowed them to control some of the trade that allowed them through the Sahara desert. It gave them incredible amounts of money which gave them power and paved civilization ○ Reasons for success: § Had a very good and large army (200,000 men) and lots of horses that provided for a very large cavalry (men fighting on horseback) and a large navy, which was used to control the great rivers of the Sudan. § Controlling the great rivers made It relatively easy to move from one end to another and control the population since most of the people lived by the river § His enemies believed he had magic powers/ backed by the gods 1492 • Sonni Ali is killed, drowned in the river • Succeeded by his son Baru ○ Doesn’t last very long bc he is soon challenged by one of his cousins Muhammad Askia('king') ○ Muhammad Askia claims that Baru and his father before him were not true Muslims § Even though they said they were Muslims, he said that they continued to worship the older gods ○ Muhammad calls a jihhad on Baru (war) § Wants to kick Baru off the throne so that a Muslim can rule § Muhammad wins this civil war § Baru is removed from power □ Is spared by Muhammad ○ Muhammad becomes king from 1493-1528AD • The people of Songhai had their own distinct ethnic group and would conquers § Muhammad wins this civil war § Baru is removed from power □ Is spared by Muhammad ○ Muhammad becomes king from 1493-1528AD • The people of Songhai had their own distinct ethnic group and would conquers a bunch of others during the reign of Muhammad ○ The subjects of Songhai were unhappy under Muhammad Askia's rule and wanted to regain their freedom ○ Muhammad knows this and wants to find something that will hold the people together -> religion § He forces the people of the empire to adopt Islam § He proclaims himself caliph (representative of Muhammad on Earth; one who claimed to be the political, military, and religious leader of all Muslims) § He hoped that once everyone adopted Islam, everyone would look at him not only as king but as a religious leader □ He hoped this would bind the people together ○ His plan would fail once he dies § The people would not practice, which would lead to constant civil war among the descendants § Muhammad had 4 sons; each wanting to be king □ The 4 brothers would fight in a civil war to see who would rule; which would go on for years; 1 triumphs □ Repeated again and again… ○ The civil war would severely weaken the power of Songhai ○ Bad luck: just when their power was weakest, they faced powerful invasion from the north in the city of Morocco § The ruler of MoroccoS ultan al-Mansur □ He always wanted to get his hands on the trade that passed through the Sahara desert □ Used to always be controlled by Songhai, but now the power of Songhai had declined dramatically because of all the civil wars □ He saw an opportunity 1591 • The sultan gathers together an army of 10,000 Moroccan soldiers • Sends the army across the Sahara desert to attack Songhai • To defend the empire, Sultan gathers ~40,000 soldiers 1591 • Battle of Tondibi ○ The army of Morocco defeated the army of Songhai § Reason: at this time, the Muslims in north Africa had the best rifles and cannons on earth ○ This defeat was the final blow to Songhai 1591 • Battle of Tondibi ○ The army of Morocco defeated the army of Songhai § Reason: at this time, the Muslims in north Africa had the best rifles and cannons on earth ○ This defeat was the final blow to Songhai § As a result, Morocco and the soldiers took over the oasis and the desert and even some ports of the Sudan which meant Morocco now controlled much of the trade that went through the Sahara, making Morocco incredibly wealth and rich ○ During this period, the Europeans began arriving and colonizing the coastlines, allowing them to steal the gold that had been traveling through the Sudan ○ After these years of civil war, and now the major defeat at Tondibi, Songhai was now not powerful enough to hold onto his empire § Those ethnic groups that had been conquered by Songhai rose up in rebellion and regained freedom
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