HIST10 wk8 lecture notes
HIST10 wk8 lecture notes Hist 10
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Christien Ng on Tuesday February 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see World History 1 in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/23/16
Ming China Tuesday, February 23, 2016 1:52 PM China Mongols 1216-1368AD Chu yuan-chang 1328-1398 Kuo Tzu-tsing 1352-1355 Ming 1365-1644 Hung-wu 1369-1398 Chu yua-wen 1398-1402 Chu Ti Yung-lo 1402-1424 Kow tow Cheng Ho 1405-1433 • Mongolswould rule China for more than a century ○ Which meant they also ruled the silk road • Kublian Khan 1234 -1294 ○ Huge fan of Chinese civilization ○ Spent most of his time living in Chinese cities ○ Did his best to rule like a Chinese emperor ○ But after he dies, Mongol rule in China began to fall apart § "the cycle of history" -chinese □ The Chinese believed that ruling dynasties always began well (peace, prosperity, good government) and that it was inevitable that at some point, things would go bad ® Bad leadership ◊ After Kublian Khan, most of the Mongol leaders in China were ineffective; either they were stupid or lazy or mean; did not rule well; did not know what they were doing ® Were unable to keep the peace/keep order; massive revolts against Mongol rule which leads to almost ◊ After Kublian Khan, most of the Mongol leaders in China were ineffective; either they were stupid or lazy or mean; did not rule well; did not know what they were doing ® Were unable to keep the peace/keep order; massive revolts against Mongol rule which leads to almost constant civil war; dramatic rise in crime; decline in the Chinese population; breakdown in the economy ○ China goes through numerous natural disasters (earthquakes, famine, flooding) as a result of Mongol rule § Mandate of heaven 1328 • Chu yuan-chang is born • He is born in poverty ○ Family loses their farm ○ Have to resort to begging for their food • By the time he is 16, his parents and all his siblings have all died • He decides to become a Buddhist monastery (monk) ○ Still poor, but provided him an education that helped him later in life • He lived in the monastery for 8yrs 1352 • Chu yuan-chang leaves the monastery and joins up wih o Tzu-tsing(a gang leader) in a gang • They grow more and more powerful because nobody stops them • Kuo becomes in charge of a small local area ○ Chu quickly rises up in Kuo's criminal organization ○ He eventually becomes Kuo's second in command ○ Marries Kuo's daughter 1355 • Kuo dies of natural causes • Chu quickly rises to power and eliminates all threats including Kuo's sons • He gains control of Kuo's gang and his small governed area 1355-1365 ~13yrs • Chu conquers all of China 1368 • Chu drives the Mongols out of China once and for all • Chu is now the emperor of China ○ Renames his dynasty thMing Dynasty "brilliant flame" ○ Chu and his descendants will rule for almost 300yrs (1368 -1644) • When one takes the throne, usually they used a nickname instead of their real name ○ Instead of Chu, he used Hung-wu ("reign of the great military emperor") • Would rule until 1398 • Was incredibly hard-working ○ Chu and his descendants will rule for almost 300yrs (1368 -1644) • When one takes the throne, usually they used a nickname instead of their real name ○ Instead of Chu, he used Hung-wu ("reign of the great military emperor") • Would rule until 1398 • Was incredibly hard-working ○ Spent most all his time trying to revive China after decades of anarchy ○ Was very successful in repairing the damage from the decades of anarchy ○ Restored peace and order to China § Population and economy flourish again • Ran into 1 problem: had to find a successor; one who was ready to rule when he dies; peaceful transition of power; had many sons ○ Had to introduce prime dentur-eeldest son would be successor § However, his oldest son died before he did § Decided to stick with prime denture § His oldest son's oldest son (Chu ywen) • Chu yun-wenbecomes the 2nd main emperor at the age of 21 • Chu Ti comes along and causes trouble ○ He was one of the many sons of Hunwu (uncle of Chu yun -wen) ○ Was very upset that his father did not make him successor § He was 40yrs old § Had extensive political and military experience while Chwnen had no experience as he was very young • Chu Ti is in Beijing, Chu yun-wen is in Nanking holding Chu Ti's son's as hostages so that he could not rebel ○ Chu Ti suddenly becomes very sick; appears that he is going to die Sends a letter to Chu yun-wen saying that he is dying and asks his sons to ○ be sent over so that he can say goodbye ○ Chu yun-wen agrees and sends the sons over ○ Chu Ti gets better and rebels against Chu yun-wen § Chu Ti wins the civil war and becomes the 3rd main emperor Yung- lo ("everlasting joy") § Chu yun-wen disappears • As emperor, he has goals of: 1. Showing the world that the Chinese are back (it had been over 700yrs that China had been powerful under Chinese rule) 2. Showing the world that China was the most powerful country in the world 3. Show the world that he was the most powerful ruler on Earth and in history • He implements these goals through thet ibute system ○ 2 ways it could be expanded: 1. By land □ Expanded the army until it had 2million soldiers ® He did not just go out and start attacking people. history • He implements these goals through thet ibute system ○ 2 ways it could be expanded: 1. By land □ Expanded the army until it had 2million soldiers ® He did not just go out and start attacking people. Instead, he sent out ambassadors out to other states (eg Korea) and they would then politely ask them to participate in the tribute system; bring tribute to Beijing (gold, silver, art, animals, plants, etc). ® That ruler would then have to face the emperor and kow-tow("bang head") -touch their head to the ground ◊ As long as they did this, Yung -lo treated them well; "like his little brothers" ® During his reign, more than 50states were part of the tribute system ® Whoever refused to cooperate, Yunlo would send his army in and force them to k-tow and then be executed 2. By sea □ For the first time in Chinese history, during the reign of Yung - lo, China became a great naval power ® They built the greatest wooden fleet ever seen ® Altogether, they had 300+ ships ® Had the most advanced technology (compasses, cannons) ® Greatest feature was their large size ® Could carry a huge army, travel almost anywhere, destroy almost anything w their canons □ Altogether, the Chinese would have 7 successful explorations ® All led by Cheng Ho (1405-1433) ® Would have leaders as far as Africa coming to china to kow-tow ◊ In Africa, the Chinese saw an animal that only appeared in Chinese mythology: only appeared when the heavens were happy. So when this animal appeared in China, the emperor was happy. The animal was a giraffe • Yung-lo was successful in accomplishing his goal; voyages prove Chine is the most powerful country on Earth yet seen • But after his death, his successors decide that voyage was a waste of time and they finally gave up naval supremacy, which would leave the door open for the Europeans who would arrive in the Indian Ocean a short while after most powerful country on Earth yet seen • But after his death, his successors decide that voyage was a waste of time and they finally gave up naval supremacy, which would leave the door open for the Europeans who would arrive in the Indian Ocean a short while after
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