History 10 Week 8 Notes
History 10 Week 8 Notes Hist 10
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nancy Notetaker on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 10 at University of California Riverside taught by Steve Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see World History in History at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Week 8 Feb 23 (T) Outline: China Chu Yun-Wen 1398-1402 Mongols 1216-1368 AD Chu Ti Chu Yuan-Chang 1328-1398 Yung Lo 1402-1424 Kuo Tzu-hsing 1352-1355 Kow tow Ming 1368-1644 Cheng Ho 1405-1433 Hung-wu 1368-1398 Today we will be talking about Chinese History and in particular the Ming Dynasty, how it was established and why during the earlier Ming Dynasty China was the most advanced and powerful country yet seen in history China, historically, has been divided into two regions: Inner China and Outer China • Inner China: o dominated by major rivers, had very fertile soil (meaning they could farm enough food to feed a large population) o most Chinese people have lived in Inner China (~95% of population) SO through most of Chinese history civilization has been centered around Inner China • Outer China: o hostile environment, very few people lived in outer China (deserts, mountains) o through most of China’s early history, Outer China acted as a barrier isolating China from the outside world Bc is was isolated, this helped China develop such a unique civilization • China had already been conquered by the Mongols o the Mongols invaded during 1225, during the time of Genghis Khan, and they would eventually conquer all of China o Mongols will rule China for more than a century and for part of that time they will rule well, especially during the time of Kubilai Khan ruled § even though Kubilai Khan was a Mongol, he was a huge fan of Chinese Civilization, he even lived in Chinese Cities and did his best to rule like a Chinese Emperor HOWEVER After Kubilai Khan dies the Mongol rule in China began to fall apart, the Chinese believed this was “The Cycle of History” or in other words History Always Repeats Itself: ú The Chinese believed that ruling dynasties always began well, roughly during the first half of any dynasty things went well (peace, prosperity, good gov’t, etc) BUT the Chinese believed that it was inevitable that at some point every dynasty would begin to fall apart, things would go bad and that this not only applied to the Chinese, but Mongols were also subjected to this fate Once Kubilai Khan died Mongol Rule began to break down meaning a number or things: 1) Bad Leadership o After Kubilai Khan most of the Mongol rulers in China were ineffective, they were stupid or lazy or mean and didn’t rule well This is a problem, bc if the ruler has almost absolute power and he doesn’t know what he is doing that’s going to cause problems Without good leadership the Mongol Empire of China was unable to keep peace and order SO there are massive revolts against Mongol Rule, leading to almost constant Civil War 2) Lack of Gov’t = Dramatic Rise in Crime o Negative Impact Both of these had a negative impact on the Chinese people, there was a decline in population and a break down in the economy (when the population plummets, population goes down which means less taxes which means gov’t doesn’t have money to do what they need to) • Whenever a dynasty goes in decline, China suffers numerous natural disasters such as earthquakes, famine, flooding o The Chinese did not believe these were random happenings, rather signs from heaven that the ruling dynasty has lost the mandate of heaven o The Chinese believe the dynasty only ruled bc it had the approval of heaven so with all of these natural disasters they no longer have the approval and that invites more trouble In 1328 a baby boy is born, Chu Yuan-Chang, into a very poor peasant family • His family loses their farm, goes bankrupt, and end up begging for food and money By the time Chu is 16, both his parents and 6 siblings have all died (this was typical) o Chu then decided to join a Buddhist Monastery and became a monk, monks were also very poor but they provided Chu with an education § Chu remained in the Monastery for 8 years but in 1352, when he was 24 he left the Monastery and joined Kuo Tsu-hsing ú Kuo Tsu-hsing was the local criminal gang leader, so Chu basically went off to join a gang ( J k. ) • Chu was a typical criminal at first but bc the Mongol Gov’t fell apart there was no one to stop Kuo so his organization grew so he began to become more powerful Eventually, Kuo took over a small area of Central China and became the gov’t for that small area • Chu quickly began to rise up in Kuo’s criminal organization and eventually becomes Kuo’s second in command, and marries his daughter o In 1355 Kuo dies of natural causes, Chu then takes control of Kuo’s gang and the small area in Central China (he eliminated all rivals) 1355-1368 Chu conquers ALL of China 1368 he drives the Mongols out of China Chu is now the new Emperor of China • When a new Emperor takes over they come up with a name for their new dynasty, Chu’s was the Ming Dynasty (ming = brilliant, lasted ~300 Years) Also, when a new Emperor takes the throne he comes up with a name for his time in charge, Chu’s reign was then known as the Reign of the Hung-Wu Emperor o Hung-Wu ruled for 60 years § he was very hard working & spent his time trying to revive China after decades of anarchy (successful in repairing some damage), and restored peace + order to China (population began to rise & economy recovers) § Hung-Wu was a Successful Emperor However, Hung-Wu needed to find a successor so there would be a peaceful transition of power when he died The problem was he had 26 sons, so if he didn’t have someone succeed him Civil War would break out like crazy SO he institutes primogeniture J meaning his eldest son will be his successor BUUUUUUT his eldest son died before he did SO he had to decide whether to stick to primogeniture (choose his eldest sons’ eldest son) or choose another son He sticks to primogeniture and chooses his grandson to be his successor: Chu Yun-Wen o Chu Yun-Wen becomes the second Ming Emperor (21 YO) YAY right? JK No Almost immediately there is trouble because of Chu Ti • Chu Ti was one of the sons of Hung-Wu o Chu Ti was very upset that his father didn’t appoint him as the successor Chu Ti was 40 YO, he had years of political and military experience SO Chu Ti wants to be the Emperor, how? He wants to rebel BUUUT the problem is that Chu Yun-Wen has his 3 sons as hostages in Nan-King and Chu Ti is in Beijing as the commander of an army (rulers who were worried someone might rebel took the person’s family as hostages so no one would rebel, kind of like an insurance policy) SO Chu Ti can’t rebel until he gets his sons back § Chu Ti then suddenly becomes very, very ill L It appears that Chu Ti is going to die so he writes to Chu Yun- Wen asking for him so send his sons to Beijing so he can say good-bye before he dies AND Chu Yun-Wen agrees & sends the sons ú As soon as the sons arrive in Beijing Chu Ti’s health MIRACULOUSLY improves (lol), now that he has his sons he can rebel, it becomes very clear that he was lying BUT THEN Chu Ti says that he is rising up in rebellion against his nephew the emperor bc Chu Yun-Wen dishonored him by accusing him of planning to rebel (so his excuse is that he is rebelling bc he was accused of plotting to rebel) ANNND CHU TI WINS the Civil War Chu Ti is now the Third Ming Emperor his nickname was Yung Lo Emperor (everlasting joy) • As Emperor Yung Lo had some very ambitious goals: 1) He wants to demonstrate to the world that the Chinese are back § It had been almost 700 Years since China was unified and powerful under Chinese rule, he wants to show everyone that that bad time is over 2) He wants to demonstrate that China is the most powerful country on earth & the history of the world 3) He wants to demonstrate that he, Yung Lo, is the most power ruler on earth & in history He achieves them all, how? ú Yung Lo instituted the Tribute System • There were 2 ways the tribute system could be expanded: 1) By land o Yung Lo expanded the Chinese Army until it had 2Million soldiers, however he didn’t use the army to just start attacking people Instead he would send ambassadors to states in Asia, the ambassadors would then politely ask the ruler of the state to participate in the Tribute System This meant the ruler would have to bring tribute to Beijing (gold, silver, etc.) , so they would bring the stuff, come before Yung Lo, kneel and then Kow Tow (bang head) § The ruler of whatever state would kneel and touch their head to the ground as a sign of submission § This was the acknowledgement that Yung Lo was greater than then and that China was better that their country § As long as they complied Yung Lo treated them well o Usually rulers would always comply, but if they refused Yung Lo sent the army in, the army never lost SO the rulers would then be forced to come to Beijing, kow tow and then be executed 2) By sea o For the first time in Chinese history China became a great naval power § they built the greatest wooden fleet ever seen (300 ships), the fleet had compasses and cannons, and the ships were HUGE (444 feet long) and fast § the ships were able to carry a huge army & literally blow anything out of the water o Chinese sent out 7 great voyages of exploration all led by Cheng Ho (the great admiral) § Wherever the Chinese went they asked people to participate in the Tribute System & when people saw the fleet most said yes SO during this period you had people from everywhere coming to Kow Tow like Africa Now in Africa the Chinese saw an animal that reminded them of one in Chinese mythology that only appeared when the heavens was happy: this was the giraffe SO when the giraffe appeared in Beijing Yung Lo was very happy So Yung Lo was successful, the voyages proved China’s Power J BUT after the death of Yung Lo the Chinese decided the voyages were a waste of time and voluntarily gave up naval supremacy, which would leave the door open for the Europeans
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