Week 4 notes
Popular in Health and Healing in US History
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Cairo on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1610 at Brown University taught by Debbie Weinstein in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Health and Healing in US History in American Studies at Brown University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Health and Human History – Week 4 2/15/16 Galenic / Traditional Medicine Balance of the four humors Effected by the 6 non-naturals o Air o Sleep o Food and drink o Exercise o Excretion o The emotions Intellectual legacy of the colonists What is an epidemic Dramtic Unique Quick to happen Endemic Traditional More common Ex. Small pox o Epidemic in native American population o Endemic in Europe o Role of slavery Medicine is intertwined in other things that happen throughout history o Debate between medicine and religious leaders Cotton mather becomes advocate for inoculation Physicians against inoculation because of religious doctrine o Small pox has an incubation period so they could be asymtopmatic when they arrived To combat this: quarantined people would came to boston****** In boston Half the people contracted small pox Half those infected died If they were variolated: only 1-2% died Variolation – relates to small pox Deliberately given a disease Hopefully just a mild form of the disease Get the immunity 1-2% died from this procedure – iatrogenic death concern o could spread the disease – would need to be isolated o could die from iatrogenic death – maybe could have escaped the disease o highly unpopular because of these concerns Cotton Mather learned about variolation through philosophy learned from native American as well who lost someone to small pox and didn’t want to die as well from small pox Douglas opponent to inoculation divine hand that wanted the epidemic o let it happen to get involved o judgement for sins Risks of variolations were lessened by vaccinations 2 immunized – not sick from small pox and can’t spread it cowpox used as vaccination Jenner found this vaccination Surfaced in the early 18 century Still controversial o Took a while for it to catch on as a success Important role from both folk knowledge and slave knowledge Yellow Fever Epidemic 1793 two slaves that became free men o became leaders in black religious community what is yellow fever? o Is it unhealthy air Confuses understanding of disease o Is it like small pox – came from a ship or from outside the community Symptoms o Black vomit o Yellowing skin A lot of people died Confusing o Didn’t always pass it along o Contagious but not consistent Contagion v. miasma o Miasma Advocates among the scientific elite Disease caused by the atmosphere Anti-contagionism 2/17/16 Antebellum Medical Marketplace 3 Think broadly about the role of a healer in the 19th century Series of dualities o Tensions Authority that phsicians have today was not necessarily given to them o No government laws o Patients need to agree to see a particular person What is a profession? o Need training o Credentials o Professional societies o Who is responsible for these things?? Patients were consumers o Social and economic decisions about care o If they were enslaved – there options were constrained Patients can become followers of specific approaches to healing Primary source by bukin o Background in domestic medicine o Take care of self Challenege to the idea that professional knowledge for health o Argument against elitism and professional priveledge o Don’t make this exclusive o About driving up profits not about helping patients o Anti-elitism Changing practices in settlement changed practices in medical care o People were more spread out Regular assert more authority o Should there be more licensing o Should there be education requirement Few books at the time available 4 At time of American revolution o About 100 physicians o Call for more requirements and licensing 1 medical school: john morgan at penn o many suspicious of this school o thought aim was to establish higher fees o aim to make medicine more scientific medicine o argues for graded curriculum courses should build on each other take intro course and then a more advanced course courses shouldn’t be repeated require different courses kings college at Columbia o royalist school Harvard medical school o 3 medical professors o 1 didn’t have a degree himself o charged fees for individual lectures, let in anyone who could pay the fees o problem: seek out school with lower standards and lower fees* o lecturers earn livelihood from lecture fees 1830 around 30 schools generally a two year program no requirement for admission problem of standard o try to improve standards – lose students ethical practice o shouldn’t harm patients o don’t poach patients from other physicians grave robbing o using dead slave bodies to understand anatomy more 5 holmes doing less is doing more healing power of nature Thomson negative experience with normal physician herbal practices published book and ideas were promoted – print culture o the new guide to health federal patent for his system Lobelia red pepper, hot baths, use things to that cause perspiration and strengthen overtime herbal medicine was a better approach cold and obstruction was the problem – clear this out hydropathy or hydrotherapy live in water cures subscription for journal reached around 100 hundred thousand training ground for women physicians case for or against female physicians 2/19/16 how to think about labor not who was excluded from the labor force but who was decided was not worth wages for their labor think about this question of labor shifting notions of understanding of gender 6 jones African American leader and religious leader accusing black providers of stealing they did nothing wrong not about money about helping people showed accounting to prove that he was actually losing money question of recognition – did not recognize suffering in blacks moral and racial superiority being able to demonstrate accounting at this time “we leave the public to judge” our suffering invisible v. visible labor black bodies are somehow stronger so they don’t need as much help because they aren’t getting sic REVEALING THE HYPOCRISY Addressing a white audience potentially to address white norms? Clarke Education for girls makes them infertile Logical and rational argument An engine within an engine – production of labor – role of the woman – produce more laborers for the race Machine like – dehumanizing the woman Many divisions State concern Health and identity and their function Jackson Response 7 Education is not a masculine endeavor Morant sanchez Women argument for medical education is problematic Need tender female care Men can’t intrude on delicate entity Fett Burden of healing was described as unworthy of paid labor Burden falls often upon slave women What communities valued what kind of labor? Elderly female healers were respected as wise and skilled in their community but they were considered worth less by the slave owners Brought the blacks closer which was threatening to the slave owners Not based on rational scientific medicine yet may be less rational run counter to a controlled environment Degrading the form of labor executed by black women Females are not qualified healers? What does gender mean? Think about the dichotomies… Paragraph on 140 “out of the documentary” 8
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