Week 8 Soc of Education Notes
Week 8 Soc of Education Notes SOC1060
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Madison Notetaker on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOC1060 at University of Cincinnati taught by Professor Kalasia Daniels in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Freshman Seminar: Sociology of Education in Sociology at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 7 Who Gets Ahead Race Class and Gender in Education Social Strati cation in schools Racialethnic differences in educational outcomes 0 Gender composition and differences in educational outcomes 0 Social class differences in educational outcomes Withinschool and betweenschool strati cation What do these terms mean 0 What is social strati cation Rankscategories vertically What is race Physical appearance origin 0 What is ethnicity A person s cultural background 0 Does your race or ethnicity impact your daily life Why or why not Yes because it impacts the way people interact Strati cation the systematic ranking of different groups of people in a hierarchy of inequality 0 Social inequality a disparity in income wealth power prestige and other resources Characteristics of Strati ed Systems 1 Rankings apply to social categories of people ie class gender race sexuality 2 Ranking linked to status to your social category Achieved status linked to acquisition of socially valued credentials or skills Ascribed status linked to characteristics that are socially signi cant and are dif cult to alter race gender 3 Hierarchical positions tend to change slowly over time What about Race 0 Race a group sharing apparent physical traits deemed by society to be socially signi cant A social concept not a scienti c one c There is no inherent relationship between race and behaviors ls race biological But race still matters in our society 0 Race plays a role in the organization of social institutions like education What about Ethnicity Ethnicity a group s national origin language and cultural or religious practices Can selfidentify but usually need acceptance or acknowledgment by a larger group Persel article 0 Race and education Research based on BlackWhite comparisons Symbolic anchors of racial hierarchy US racial strati cation Race is socially constructed Boundary crossing varies by racialethnic group as does level of domination Variations in educational outcomes Explanations for different outcomes Genetic explanations Cultural explanations Structural explanations Do neighborhoods matter Toward a fuller explanation Culture interaction and responses 0 Student attitudes and behaviors Educational payoffs Biological argument about race 0 Biological explanation for racial differentiation dominated the hard sciences Race and intelligence were immutable because it was genetic BinetSimon Test children s intelligence were assessed on a number of measure Whites scored higher than Blacks labeled superior Cultural Arguments about race 0 Cultural explanations of academic achievement explain educational differences in cultural values parenting practices and linguistic codes of families and children Blacks and whites have disparate educational outcomes because of their cultural orientation Fordham and Ogbu 1986 0 Not entirely cultural more cultural ecological theory quotCulturalquot refers to the way a group sees their world and behave in it quotEcoogyquot refers to the setting environment or world of minorities structural factors Frodham and Ogbu 1986 Background and Framework Black Americans subordinate or caste like minorities perform poorly in schools as a coping mechanism to their limited social and economic opportunities in adult life 0 Received substandard schooling because of Whites perceptions of Blacks Job ceiling even when Blacks perform well they do not have the same access 0 Develop survival strategies attitudes perceptions behaviors and competencies Collective Identity Cultural Frame and SchooHng Oppositiona collective or social identity identity is in opposition of White because of Whites treatment of Blacks Blacks understand that no matter how hard they try they will never be equal to Whites Cultural frame develop behaviors and boundaries between Whites that are appropriate and inappropriate and quotacting whitequot is not appropriate Fictive kinship schooling kinshiplike relationship between persons not related a collective social identity quotCoping with the burden of acting whitequot Capital High Coping with the Burden of Acting White the various strategies that black students at use to resolve successfully or unsuccessfully the tension between doing well and maintaining their collective identity 188 Structural Arguments about race Structural explanations do not blame individuals but argue that educational differences stem from a system of social relationships that create systematic advantages for members for one group while the members of another group are systematically disadvantaged Having social and nancial resources have consistently been found to have positive impacts on educational achievement Tyson Darrity Castellino 2005 0 Using ethnographic research counter the quotburden of acting whitequot hypothesis 0 Black students opted out of advanced courses because they felt they could not handle the amount of work required and grades would suffer Black students like other students want to feel con dent Racialized ridicule only occurred 5 240 of the time Students still enrolled in advanced courses 0 Data provides only little evidence that the quotburden of acting whitequot is a major factor to the achievement gap 0 Findings 0 Both White and Black students feel a burden of quothigh achievementquot racialized or class based opposition in schools where high status is perceived to be a privilege quotBraniacquot and quotdorkquot cut both racial and class lines Students may choose to stay in classes among peers race or class instead of being isolated Oppositional attitudes are more connected with everyday experiences of inequality in placement and achievement 0 Need to focus on STRUCTURE of schools School structure in uences school culture