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Criminology_Social Disorganization_week5


Criminology_Social Disorganization_week5 16SS_CJ7020001

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The Social Disorganization and the following evolution of this theory.
Seminar in Criminology
Ben Feldmeyer
Class Notes
Criminology Social Disorganization
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by MEI-TING HSIA on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 16SS_CJ7020001 at University of Cincinnati taught by Ben Feldmeyer in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Seminar in Criminology in Criminal Justice at University of Cincinnati.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
SOCIALDISORGANIZATION THEORY (02/24) [Chicago School; Social Ecological Perspective] *Sociological Theory: Type of Places (The dominant perspective of criminology; Environmental factor: poverty, employment, population, mobility, immigration) ex. Social Structure Theory; Social Process Theory; Social Disorganization Theory Early 1900s Radical changes in Chicago: - Population increase: industrialization (jobs); Immigration, in-migration movement; Urbanization population explosion (1880s-500k population, 1900-1 million, 1910-2 million)
 - Park & Burgess start: “CONCENTRIC ZONES MODEL” (Natural Model) (1920s-1950s) -Aprocess of Invasion and Succession (Germany immigrants first at zone II, then move to zone III; after 10 years, other immigrants move here and still have the crime pattern, such as Italians) - Ecological Model: the model is like a natural process, like the plants growth. Shaw and McKay “Social Disorganization Theory”
 “inability of a community structure to realize the common values of its residents and maintain effective social controls” (Bursik, 1984)
 - Juvenile Delinquency and UrbanAreas - They map the distribution of TB, Infant Mortality, Mental Illness, JuvenileArrests (Every social problems have the same pattern) - (1) POVERTY, 2. RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY (no community supervision), (3) ETHNIC HETEROGENEITY, (4) FAMILY DISRUPT cause crime and problems.
 >>Social Disorganization>> Crime>> Subculture (Normal) - Organized community organization v.s disorganized community organization (conflicting systems of values, can’t control delinquency behaviors)
 - Specific areas of youths- groups and adult offenders- acquire experience- skilled - Ineffectiveness of Family: 1. other members illegals 2. the influence of delinquent group 3. new problems that traditional solution can’t be used. - Location, economic, population
 *Shaw and McKay's disorganization mode 
 1. the ability of a community to supervise and control teenage peer group 2. informal local friendship network 3. the rate of local participation informal and voluntary organization Ruth Kornhause (1978s) (Revive Social Disorganization Theory)
 - Mixed Model didn’t work: you can’t be organized for crime and social organization at the same time. - No mixed model, but the Control Theory: Why people don’t commit crime, dis organized community can’t control crime
 - Results in weakening of informal social control 
 Organized Community: Live in area long time; supervision of kids; meeting/watching group; fear/ lock of fear; friendship/ties control
 (Critics: Shaw and McKay never define what the Disorganization community is….) Sampson & Groves (1989s) “Systemic Model” 
 (Strong social ties and Frequent Interaction; friendship; kinship network) - One of the first tests of “disorganization”: friendship, peer groups, organization participation.
 - British crime data (Generalization)
 - Rise of the Systemic Model
 - Employ self-report and victimization data. - They found that the structural factors like poverty and mobility shaped social ties and social networks in communities. Specifically they affected the local friendship networks, the ability of residents to control teen peer groups, and they influenced residents’willingness to participate in local organizations. Bellair (1997) “Weak Ties”
 - Testing Systemic Model: compare social - Infrequent ties, interact one time a year - Strength of “weak ties”: when neighbors have a lot of weak ties, they have much BIGGER and wider social networks, which helps organize communities and prevent crime. Sampson et al. (1997) “Collective Efficacy”
 - PHDCN study - Social Cohesion/ Trust - Informal Social Control: willingness to intervene for common good.
 - Poverty; mobility; heterogeneity>>>Collective Efficacy>>>Crime - Doesn’t must have strong ties, but have Capacity for action; Expectation; Mutual Obligation. Willingness to do something. Others that affect “Collective Efficacy”: Fear of crime; Relation; Immigration flows and homicide trends The limitation of Social Disorganization Theory - Can’t explain individual level
 - Lack of reliability - Focus on changing neighborhood dynamic but not the roots (poverty, mobility…etc.)
 - This is a Urban Crime pattern (match white collar crime), there are other crimes don’t match this map


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