Lecture 9 - Self Knowledge (continued)
Lecture 9 - Self Knowledge (continued) ORSC 1109
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Leslie Ogu on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ORSC 1109 at George Washington University taught by Costanza, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Organizational Sciences in Humanities and Social Sciences at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Leslie Ogu PSYC 2012 02/22/2016 Self Knowledge (continued) Understanding Our Emotions ➢ Twofactor theory of emotion (from Schachter & Singer (1960s)) ○ Factor 1 Experience physiological arousal ○ Factor 2 Seek explanation via cognitive label ○ Label = result of experience and environmental cues (e.g. the situation and others) ○ Ex : Physiological Arousal Running and heart is pounding; Cognitive Label I’m afraid and in danger ○ Perception and thought about a stimulus influence the type of emotion you feel ○ The degree of bodily arousal influences the intensity of the emotion you feel ○ The labeling of an arousal depends on the situation if there is no other explanation ■ If the reason for the arousal is known, people won’t look for another reason Misattribution of Arousal ➢ Def: the process in which people mistake inferences about what is causing them to feel the way they do ○ One explanation could be physiological arousal from one source (such as exercise, medication, or caffeine) enhancing the intensity of how a person interprets other feelings (like how attractive they find someone, or their emotion towards certain people) ■ Ex: Your heart is pounding when you are drinking coffee, and then a new, attractive student walks into the class, so you assume you must be attracted to them when it could just be the caffeine. Social Comparison Theory ➢ People tend to always want accurate feedback about their abilities and attitudes ➢ They prefer objective, nonsocial standards ○ If these are unavailable, people will compare themselves to others ➢ Comparison Targets ○ Lateral target doing about the same as the person ○ Downward target is doing worse than the person ■ Negatives ● If it implies a negative shift in the future ● Lower selfesteem or low control over behavior ● Contact with downward target can be depressing, scary, or even aversive ● Leads to shift in lower personal standards ○ Upward target is doing better than the person ■ Advantages ● Affiliation with others doing or coping well can lead to an increase in hope, motivation, inspiration, and information ● Higher standards ■ Disadvantages ● If standards are too high, leads to lower selfesteem ● Threatening ○ Temporal self at other points in time ➢ People are pretty good about selecting targets to meet certain motives ○ If we don’t like the comparison, we can reduce closeness, make postcomparisons, be selective ➢ Self Comparison Motives ○ Selfevaluation ■ find out how well one is doing ■ lateral target ○ Selfimprovement ■ learn to do/be better ■ upward target ○ Selfenhancement ■ feel better about oneself ■ downward target ➢ Social Comparison Orientation Tendencies ○ High Comparers ■ More strongly influenced by SC targets (especially downward/negative targets) ■ Constant activation of and awareness in the self ■ Strong interests in the thoughts and feelings of others ■ More strongly influenced and affected by social norms ➢ SelfPresentation ○ Def: people are biased to see themselves in a favorable light ■ Do they always want others to see them in a favorable light? ● Ex: Students in elementary school may not want to be seen as the “goodytwoshoes” and be ostracized by classmates ○ SelfHandicapping behaviors designed (on purpose) to create obstacles and excuses for people so that if they do poorly on a task, they can avoid selfblame ■ Ex: Not going to practices before a championship game ■ Avoid painful attribution for failure by: ● creating or taking advantage of ambiguity ● raises questions about why the failure occurred ■ Protects ego and selfesteem ■ Variations ● Acquired (obstacles that actually lower the likelihood of success) ○ Ex: Behaviors: substance use, alcohol use ● Claimed (obstacles people claim to have) ○ Ex: stress ● Acquired is more believable, but also more costly ■ Why selfhandicap in the noncontingent success condition? ● Discounting eliminate internal cause if external causes are available ○ Create an external attribution ○ Create an unstable attribution ● Augmentation succeed despite the odds (make internal attribution) ○ Why do we selfpresent? The Spotlight Effect ■ Def : people tend to believe the social spotlight shines more brightly on them than it actually does ■ Our tendency to think that other people are watching us more closely than they actually are ● Ex: bad hair days, wearing worn out shoes, not wearing your best outfit ○ SelfRegulation ■ Selfcontrol is a limited resources and controlling it takes effort ■ Draws on a limited resource (it’s like a muscle) ■ Thus, one act of volition, or selfcontrol, will have a detrimental effect on a subsequent act of volition or selfcontrol ● even if the two acts are in unrelated domains ● due to “ego depletion” ■ Limits: ● Dieters give into high temptation quicker (even those restricted on doctor’s orders) ○ those who don’t give in are quicker to give up on the following tasks ● Former smokers are more likely to take up smoking again when stressed ○ dealing with stress depletes the “self resource,” such that there is less to spend in other areas Summary ➢ SelfConcept “Who am I?” ➢ SelfAwareness “How do I know who I am?” ➢ SelfEsteem “Do I value myself?” ➢ Motivation “What is my motivation for my behavior?” ➢ Emotions “How do I know what I am feeling?” ➢ Social Comparison “How do I know what I am feeling?” ➢ SelfPresentatio “How do I present myself to you?” ➢ SelfContro “How do I control myself?”
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