Lecture date :02 - 22- 16 Mon.
Lecture date :02 - 22- 16 Mon. PSYCH 2014
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Somto Onwuchekwa on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 2014 at George Washington University taught by Steven Mitroff in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Cognitive Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
▯ 02/ 22/ 16 Mon. ▯ Lecture ▯ Attention ▯ - William James He wrote books Did research 1842 – 1910 “Everybody knows what attention is” However it is hard to define o Filter o Selecting o Binding o Focusing o Enhancing o … “Selective processing of specific information (object, location, thought, e.t.c) at the potential cost of other information that is already available” Attention is a limited resource It is hard to multitask and give your full attention to something ▯ - Visual Search Searching for a target amongst other tasks Ex: search for wallet on a messy desk, search for cars in a parking lot ▯ Attentional Selection ▯ - Intentional Blindness Experiment done In New York Judge which line is longer While judging the lines, a square pops up at the side, but it goes unnoticed because that wasn’t the focus The focus was on judging lines When your focus is on one thing, you are blind to whatever is going on outside your attention box In the gorilla costume experiment o 50 % did not see the gorilla When your attn. is taking up by a primary task, you can miss something that is right there Luminance of Unexpected Object o The cross going across the screen they changed the luminance o When you were tracking : White letters and white cross = cross was noticed White letters and black cross = cross was unnoticed Black letters and black cross = cross was noticed Black letters and white cross = cross was unnoticed o You’re really trying to push away what you’re not asked to look for. You filter out information not being attended Side Note o Jeremy Wolfe o “Intentional Amnesia” rather than “Intentional blindness” o He says that maybe we do see the object, but because that is not what we are supposed to be paying attention to, we immediately forget. Ex: Drivers hit bikes and motorcycles and they say they never saw it o Why? They’re paying more attention to driving and the obvious things they can hit, like children and are intentionally blind to the two-wheelers - Attentional Blink Type of experiment : Rapid serial visual presentation o Question in experiment: Is there a red letter AND a “K”? It was much easier to see the K after a longer time 2 – 5 items after you notice the first item, you are worse at finding the second Lag 1 Spearing : Data showed that you’re however, really good at finding an object when it comes right after the one you just found because you are still paying attention and the latter gets processed at well. There is sort of a blink in your attention span Ex: L M N H K Y O T H = K comes immediately after red so chance of seeing both is HIGH Ex: L H M N K Y O T H = K Comes 3 letters after read so you don’t process the K only the Red letter - LOW Ex: L H M N Y O T H K = K comes 7 letters after the Red letter, you possibly see BOTH – HIGH ▯ - Attention without awareness Muller – Lyer Illusion (LOOK THIS OVER) o Perceptual grouping without awareness o When the arrow heads are facing out, they look longer >----< o When the arrow heads are facing in, it looks shorter <----> o They were somehow grouping things together without knowing they were grouping them ▯ - Attentional Filtering Stroop Effect o Reading the colors out loud o People are slower in incongruent ( farthest to the right on the slide) o People are faster in the congruent o People are fastest in the Neutral (when the colors are in reg. words) o Cannot ‘filter’ out color or meaning Selective Listening – In Class Demonstration o 2 people reading at the same time o Listening to one channel of information and ignoring the other o Get’s better with practice
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