week 4 notes
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Melissa Cairo on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 0100 at Brown University taught by Robert Hackey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Public Policy in Public Health at Brown University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Public Policy – Week 4 Scalia’s Death Deadlock now between the liberal and conservative side of the supreme court – 4:4 split o We could be without a judge for most of this year o What happens with 4-4 Appeals court is upheld This is now the biggest deal in the campaign o Opportunity for the new president to remake this court Courts are political institutions o Myth of political detachment o People who are in the courts are people who have opinions about politics President will nominate someone and senate will probably reject This could change the senatorial races a lot o A lot of democratic money can come in if the senate rejects presidential nominee o Then senate and president if both democrat can appoint whoever they want Pluralism and Policymaking Presumes multiple interests will be involved Few formal barriers so that people can get involved if they want to Organization is key o Identify potential supporters o And rally them Work if there is a large representation of groups Assumptions o anyone that wants to get involved will get involved o policy makers will weigh majority interests o if you can mobilize enough people you can win Contemporary model: interest groups and policy making o Bad rep in the US They contribute money and have reputation for undue influence o Groups are bound together by common interests o Educate members about emerging policy issues and provide information for others Educate citizens about important policy issues Educate congressmen and politicians about the interests of people o Get members involved in policy debates and mobilize participation Learn how to get involved Learn how to advocate and engage others o Transmit information to policymakers about member’s preferences and views private good v. public good, o Exclusive benefits help people mobilize More tangible benefits Critique of pluralist model o Collective action (free rider) problem Self-interested and rational individuals will not act in group interest or common interest o Points out that organizing people for public goods is difficult because they make a cost and benefit calculation Unlikely that any one person is going to make a big impact There are other competing demands for our attention o Have to make it worth people’s while o Have to use incentives Incentives to recruit members o Solidary benefits Meet similar people and make friends 2 Allow people to meet face to face or online Get to know other members o Purposive Advocate for common interests Put time and money where mouth is o Material groups and services You agree with the mission because they also get some stuff Get a magazine, stuffed animal or a bumper sticker Ex. Interest group – AARP o Why join? What are the member benefits? o They have figured out how to make membership happen o 39 million people o older people vote o why are they politically mobilized get benefits medicare Medicaid Social security What is your take of author’s personal take on politics? Narrative o Trying to make it more relatable o A little distrustful o People usually use stories to represent a situation Policy tool** How will this better resonate with people? Example of the revolving door o Specialized expertise that can be used in different places at different times Where did health insurance get its start o Teacher’s union forms a pre-paid health plan 1929 3 o Happens as there was more concern of affordability o Voluntary alternative to big government solution o Wasn’t included in Social Security reform for FDR Doctors campaigned against that World War II throws massive wrinkle in health care o Need labor force at home o American girl o Fringe benefits paid vacation Part of American workers expectation o IRS: Allow the use of health insurance Pg. 21 Employers can offer a non-wage compensation Not taxable benefits Set a precedent Private health insurance went from 10 million to about 70 million o We now have a new status quo This is the problem with trying to add a new program Having to work around the current system When you make a policy decision, it affects subsequent policy decisions o Richard Nixon was the one who first proposed the ACA The growth of corporate influence o 2010 case citizens united v. FEC o can’t restrict campaign funds – limit right to free speech o allow groups to highlight issues, and highlight records on issues o corporations are not people? Is money speech? o Intertwined with campaigns – campaigns neeeeed money***** Hard for bigger states 4 Ex. California multiple news networks and lots of ground to cover Different amount of money needed for different constituencies Winners outspend losers by about 3:1 o Need for money is constant**** Raising money for past and future campaigns State-level lobbying Massachusetts o Health care organizations spent more than $19 million lobbying lawmakers in mass Policy Advocacy Project Proposal o Propose a topic o Find something you care about o What issue you want to look at o Find a bill that is under consideration o National level o Topic, bill, person to persuade – cannot already be a supporter o Do some background reading, find 4 articles, know the nuances o One page due next Thursday – plan of attack o Get to know the person you are trying to persuade 2/18/16 Interest groups - lobbying strategies Stereotypes and myths of lobbying o “Fat cats” o lots of money 5 but how can you someday effectively lobby???? o Lobbying is storytelling o What does a policy mean for things that you care about Hire a lobbyist to advocate for your interests o Specialized knowledge o You couldn’t be there Effective lobbying o Grassroots and other lobbying How do you influence policy through lobbying? Grassroots lobbying o Own members advocate for issue o Bottom up Reality of lobbying o Passionate about specific causes o Most aren’t deep-pocketed donors who “buy votes” o Lobbying reflects the 1 amendment right to petition the government for a redress of grievances Right to pitch your case Fundamental to what lobbying is o Lobbyist often give money to both candidates in an election so that they can get in the room to talk to you so that they can pitch their issues BUY ACCESS Thought of as an investment o Have to register as a lobbyist Have to report lobbying expenses o Lots of money spent on lobbying o ALL ABOUT BULDING RELATIONSHIPS***** Not about one issue Not one vote Be able to go back again and again ALWAYS TELL THE TRUTH** Can’t be duplicitous about it 6 Once you have built trust, can call on lobbyists to know What are interested groups that are focused on these issues thinking about this Example of lobbying o Tolls around the state for trucking because they are harming the roads the most o Business owners are lobbying against this o Trucking association Example o Rhode island lobbyists are very useful Ask the people who are effected by this issue Don’t have staffs so they ask lobbyists Provide vital information Scope and intensity** Campaign contributions o Want to be the last person legislatures talk to before they take a vote Why might we need more lobbyists o Not enough interests are represented and are not equally represented o Ex. Children Poor o How can we do this? Need to give a certain amount of free services Probono Public interest interest groups Economic resources are political resources o Easier to get your voice heard AARP o Membership costs $16 o Gives discounts on a ton of stuff o Pays back the cost of membership o Original idea to have a insurance bidding Desirable customers Responsible folks that are low risk 7 Companies want the AARP members o AARP gets money every time that someone uses services through there services o 100s of millions of dollars this is where they get their money for advocacy o 40 lobbyists working the hill BUDGETS are statements of PRIORITY o What is important to legislatures Have to be short and sweet o What is your elevator speech??????? o Being concise o Get to the point o FORCES YOU TO PRIORITZE o Every word counts Example – Medicaid expansion o Physicians want to expand Medicaid Example – malpractice reform o Cost of health care is being driven up by this Grassroots lobbying o Persuade the decision maker o Not paid lobbyist o Communicate how the average person feels o Expose the intensity of the issue in the public o Can be very effective! – especially if they are your voters o Key to persuade average citizens to get involved Strategies for grassroots lobbying o Citizen contacting Twitter Phone calls Email Urge action Scope and intensity matter o Elite mobilization Noteworthy individuals Opinion leaders 8 Newsworthy can help persuade others adds weight to your message o electoral mobilization if you don’t vote with me, we will vote you out of office line in the sand high stakes strategy groups can endorse candidates and urge members to vote for endorsed individuals most large unions have endorsed Hillary Clinton how cohesive is an organization group can donate volunteers to work for or against particular dandidates voter mobilization – coordinate efforts to get members to polls don’t undermine credibility and influence o mass media strategies protests marches/rallies demonstrations press conferences have to have a strategy for how this thing goes viral gotta get the message out key of a rally is logistics attract tv crews and “free media” to draw attention to the group’s message astrotuf strategies o looks like grass but not o stealth campaigns, financed by private interests with a vested stake in the outcome o self selection issue 9 o polling can be very useful as a way to identify and direct potential supporters to contact their decisions-makers o can include “front” organizations established by corporations or other groups o orchestrated to look and feel like “natural constituent contacting? The rhetoric of reform Language shapes policy debates How do americans think about health care reform Read harcky Introduction and chapters 1 and 2 plus ny times article on crisis rhetoric 10
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