Lecture: Memory APSY.UE.0002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to APSY.UE.0002 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Adina Schick, in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO PSYCHOLOGY AND ITS PRINCIPLES in Psychlogy at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Lecture: Memory Memory Memory is learning that has persisted over time; information that has been stored and can be retrieved Without memory we would like in an enduring present where each moment is new, complete fresh. Every task would be a new challenge, every person would be a new stranger We would be strangers to ourselves Storehouse of accumulated experiences Why is identifying something as basic as a penny (from a group of fate pennies), so diﬃcult for people? Key Processes in Retaining Memory 1. Common analogy in psychology - memory = computer Not accurate analogy When memory is stored on computer, it remains unchanged - retrieve exact replica Computer stores memory quickly, has to carry out tasks sequentially When memory is stored in a human’s mind, almost never an exact replica of what you stored memory = ﬁckle Brains working slowly, capable of doing many things at the same time 2. Encoding Getting information into our brain 3. Storage retaining that information over time 4. Retrieval Getting the information out Getting Information In Automatic Processing refers to unconscious encoding of incidental information Information: space, time frequency, meaning of common words Automatically process things around us without thinking about it Why we forget people’s name 30sec after meeting them - We are so focused on coming up with instantaneous judgement and what we are going to say to someone. We do not pay attention to something as basic as their name Do not remember name, because never encoded information Attention is critical to the encoding of memories Focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events Cannot give all information full attention, have to be able to ﬁlter If did not ﬁlter, would be overwhelmed Multitasking often results in a reduction in memory performance The brain, while it can handle many things at once. Can only handle one real attention consuming things at once. Levels of Processing What meaning we are associating with certain words will serve a key role in how we remember/process them. Structural Encoding The encoding of picture images When hear ice-cream and think of soft serve ice-cream cone Remembering with images Phonetic Encoding The encoding of sound, especially the sound of words Semantic Encoding Encode information based on meaning, especially the meaning of words Yields much better memory over time over Structural Encoding & Phonetic Encoding We are very good at recalling information that we can meaningfully relate to ourselves Other forms of encoding can work as well or better than Semantic Encoding when memorizing if we are remembering in a way that is personally meaningful Improving Encoding Elaboration: Linking a stimulus to other information a the time of encoding Visual Imagery: Creating mental pictures to represent the word to be remembered Motivation to remember: Putting in extra eﬀort to attend to and organize the information to facilitate future recall Key in improving encoding ex. studying for exam, motivated to remember/encode information vs. coming across random information Memory Storage Anything that is stored in our memory, lies there over time until needed 1. Sensory Memory 2. Short-Term Memory 3. Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Preserves informa:on through the senses, in its original form. If hear something - sensory memory is auditory If see something - sensory memory is visual Allows us to experience a visual pattern, sound, or touch even after the event has come and gone. Gives us additional time to recognize and memorize things. Only lasts for about .25 seconds Short-Term Memory Can only memory 7 (+/- 2) items at a time Adults and Children's short term memory recall proﬁciency may be measured by how many words they speak in 2min. Many words = recall 9 items at a time less words = recall 5 items at a time Short-term memory has limited capacity Only retain information for about 20 seconds Poor performance in basic recall is often a result of Time-related decay Ove rime, it becomes harder and harder to remember things Interference: when other information gets int he way of what is being stored Proactive Interface Something that you learned earlier, disrupts your recall of something you learned later Your brain is full of information and you cannot remember anything else Retroactive Interface Information that is new makes it hard to remember something you learned later Strategies used to counteract these eﬀect included Rehearsal repetitively verbalizing/thinking information Ex. someone give you a phone number, and as your dialing you keep repeating the last four numbers so you don’t forget it Chunking refers to organizing items into familiar, meaningful units Happens automatically Tricks our mind into thinking it is memorizing less than 7 items of information ex. ROY-G-BIV Long-Term Memory Long-Term Memory is unlimited in capacity and can hold information for very long periods of time Memories in Long-Term memory is permanent often inaccurate Retrieving information in Long-Term memory is very diﬃcult ex. Looking for a ﬁle within a giant library of ﬁle cabinets that were slightly unorganized Memories are more vivid if they are experienced during times of intense emotion Flashbulb memories provide evidence of the permanence of long-term memories Flashbulb memories: Unusually vivid and detailed recollection of a momentous event ex. If you ask someone where they were when they heard of 9/11, they will be able to tell you exactly where they were. Types of Memory Declarative Memory: Factual information - recollection of deﬁnition, names, dated, times Episodic Memory Chronological or dates recollections of personal experiences Time stamps associated with the memory Semantic Memory General knowledge that is not tied in any day by the time it was learned ex. Learning that dogs have four legs Types of Declarative memory may be explained by a book analogy Semantic Memory = Encyclopedia Episodic Memory = Autobiography Non-Declarative Memory: Procedural Memory: Non-factual memory, related to remembering a set of action/skills/responses to a particular information Ability to tie shoes/type Retrieval Retrieval cues: (anchor points) are stimuli that help gain access to memories The more retrieval cues you have, the better your chances of retrieving the memory Context Cues: involve putting yourself in the context in which the memory occurred Need to go back to where you learned the information In bedroom, walk to kitchen to get something but forget what you needed to get…Walk back to bedroom to remember what you needed to do in kitchen Schemas: organized clusters of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experiences with the object or event Create mental images based on our general experiences, if we can link something we are trying to recall to the images - will make it easier to recall memory Misinformation Eﬀect Our poor abilities to retrieve information accurately is known as the misinformation eﬀect When we retrieve information, it is never an exact replica of the past We pull up reconstructions of the past that can be distorted and include inaccurate information People include inaccuracies in everyday storytelling A source -monitoring error occurs when a memory derived from one source is misattributed to another source Retention Recall Measure: Reproduce information without any cues Recognition Measure: Select previously learned information from an array of options Relearning Measure: Memorize information a second time, and determine time and eﬀort
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