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Unit 3 Lecture 2: Ossification

by: Anna Macione

Unit 3 Lecture 2: Ossification 1223

Marketplace > Temple University > Kinesiology > 1223 > Unit 3 Lecture 2 Ossification
Anna Macione

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Covers: - ossification of bones - ligaments - structures/ functions
Anatomy & Physiology 1
Dr. Rooney
Class Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Macione on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 1223 at Temple University taught by Dr. Rooney in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology 1 in Kinesiology at Temple University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Human Anatomy and Physiology 1223 Spring 2016 Dr. Rooney Unit 3 Notes I. Ossification  production of hardened bone from fibrous CT & cartilage  Fetus approx./ 6 wk: skeleton is fibrous CT/ hyaline, developing bones  Bones develop  Matrix secretes  Mineral salts (Ca, P) go to matrix  Soft CT becomes Hard CT A. Types of Ossification 1. Intramembranous: within membranes, mostly flat bones - Primary CT cells arrange around blood vessels, change into osteoblasts - Osteoblasts secrete osteoids (organic material) around collagenous CT - Minerals go into osteoid, forms trabeculae - Osteoid mineralizes into hard bone o Osteoblasts trapped in lacunae where they mature o Outside fibrous CT turns to periosteum o Inside periosteum forms hard bone around spongy bone 2. Endochondral: hardening of hyaline cartilage, long/short/ irreg. bones - happens within cartilage - Primary ossification: forms @ center of diaphysis - Perichondrium vascularizes o Osteoblasts form o Perichondrium  periosteum - Osteoblasts let out organic matrix against hyaline shaft o creates splint “bony collar” o hyaline center calcifies o Chondrocytes die w/o nutrients - Matrix deteriorates & opens inner cavities in diaphysis - Periosteal bud allows arteries/ veins/ bone cells etc. to enter o Spongy bone forms o Spongy bone then breaks down and forms medullary cavity - Cartilage in epiphyses calcifies & breaks down o Periosteal bud enters; proximal center then distal B. Bone Growth - Length: leftover cartilage, grows along shaft - Birth: bony diaphysis & cartilage epiphyses; growth continues w/ cartilage present - Cartilage reduces to disk over time C. Epiphyseal Closure - Cartilage hardens, bone stops growing - Closure leaves a ridge called “epiphyseal line” - Closure time varies: Females before Males, proximal parts before distal parts D. Epiphyseal Injury - Growth can stop from severe injury - Sprains in children must be looked at by professional, may inhibit growth - Example: baseball pitchers vs. pitching forces - Overuse with injury= changes overtime E. Appositional Bone Growth - Bone diameter growth; strong & large - Osteoblasts place matrix on outer surface (less active= brittle bone) - Osteoclasts break down bone (less active= stronger bone) F. Factors Effecting Bone Growth - Mechanical stress: increased osteoclasts activity, breaking down of bones - Loss of bone material: casts, osteoporosis - Increased stress: too much bone production (athletes); electrical stimulation - Nutrition: vitamins are essential for bone growth (vitamin D); calcium absorption needed to prevent soft bones/ deformed bones o Vitamin D: made in skin; collagen production; mineralize matrix o Deficiency: osteoporosis - Hormones G. Osteoporosis - loss of bone mass due to loss of matrix & organic materials - usually seen in hips, vertebral column - Estrogen: inhibits resorption in m/f (adrenal glands) - Treatment: more calcium intake, exercise H. Ligaments - Dense, regular CT bands - Minimal elasticity, attach ends to bones - Retinaculum: holds muscle tendons in place; metacarpals, metatarsals, phalanges - Stabilization of joints: (1) intrinsic/ capsular= thick part of capsule (2) extracapsular= outside capsule (3) intracapsular= deep, cruciate of knee - Limit ROM of joints: thwarts dislocation


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