Lecture: Child Consumerism and Advertising
Lecture: Child Consumerism and Advertising CAMHS-UA 150
Popular in Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media
Popular in Child Development
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianda Hickey on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to CAMHS-UA 150 at NYU School of Medicine taught by Andrea Vazzana in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Child and Adolescent Mental Health Studies: Children and the Media in Child Development at NYU School of Medicine.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Lecture: Child Consumerism and Advertising Father of Modern Marketing - Edward Bernays Freud’s Nephew Engineering of Consent: scientiﬁc technique of opinion-molding Responsible for our association of Eggs and Bacon for Breakfast & Cigarettes and Women Smoked Ham companies hired him to heighten the sales in Bacon Got enough doctors to say it would be healthier for people to eat Hearty breakfasts rather than light breakfasts Hired by the tobacco industry for market expansion - Get women smokers went to local psychoanalyst Got a list of Debutants from Vogue - “Lighting our Torches of Freedom” = Women Rights Linked smoking to women right’s and fostered a feeling of independence Believed people are controlled by their emotions, non rational Held elitist view - those who understood this could and should control the masses ex. Advertisers should utilize people’s emotions to sell Television in Children (Six and under) Kaiser family foundation conducted a massive amount of research on the eﬀect of media 99% of children have a television int heir home 50% have three or more televisions in their home 36% have a television in their bedroom Media is EVERYWHERE 83% of children are playing outside 79% of children are reading and listening to music Children are experiencing an equal amount of television watching and playing outside Children Under 2 years old 68% using screen media 3% playing video games 81% listening to music 71% reading/read to Total screen time : 2.05 hours per day Total Reading/read to: 1.22 hours per day Children’s “Educational” materials are yet to be thoroughly tested Monster High Created by Mattel Mattel also created barbies When children phase out of barbies, they go into Monster High An “Advance Barbie” - Barbie targeted at older children (8-12 yrs old) Child and Teen Consumerism Spending on child advertising has increased form $5 billion to $15 billion dollars over the last 15 years Food industry spending tremendous amount of money advertising (Unhealthy) food Federal Trade Commission became worried about the increase (positive correlation) of obesity and food advertisement Television advertisement was cut back, but internet advertisement increased Children develop bran loyalty and future spending (“cradle- to-grave”) Life long consumers Brand recognition and brand loyalty If your mom buys JIFF peanut butter, you buy JIFF peanut butter for the rest of their life Historical Changes In Advertising Advertising to children dates back to the 1930’s via radio Little Orphan Annie Marketing toothpaste, aspirin, cereal Focused on children as inﬂuencing parents In the 1950's children were considered consumers in their own right Baby boomers Post WW2 Children sharing in the economic position of their parents Ralphie in The Christmas Story decoding Little Orphan Annie’s Message: Make Sure to Buy Your Olvatine! Children are excited for the “special prize” pester parents to buy the product Ralphie was 9 years old, can recognize that it is an advertisement, if he were a little younger would have bought the Olvatine Host Selling: Little Orphan Annie is telling you to buy Olvatine Has not been banned - Children are too susceptible Mickey Mouse Club First time Child Consumerism was really put to the test Tons of children rushed to get their Mickey products Turning point in terms of child advertisement Child and Teen Consumerism Targeting commercials towards parents also! Separation between parents and child program viewing times Children = Saturday mornings cartoons Parents = Night time programs 1980s - toy-television coordinated their eﬀorts to provide content that incorporated products Ex. Smurﬀs created to sell products Western culture has seen a progressive “Liberalization” of parent-child relationships that’s increasingly negotiated instead of commanded Parents were not just saying “no” to children Negotiation began - Children and Parents would talk Infants and Toddlers (0-2 years): Feeling Wants and Presences Babies come into the world with some presences for tastes and smells Like to look & listen at mothers Enjoy Sweet & Salty tastes Enjoy hearing human voices Born with an innate tendency to respond to language - “mothers” by 4-6 months babies start to turn their head toward music and show outward expressions of joy and surprise Parents recognize this, and oﬀer their child it much more At 4-5 months 8 months of age - babies can sit upright in a shopping cart more likely to be taken to the grocery story 18-24 months babies stare to recognize and request products express brand preferences advertisers make wrapping pretty for babies - they will ask their parents to buy for them Preschoolers (2-5 years old): Nagging and Negotiating Unable to distinguish fantasy from reality Believe characters and events in media are real Will expect the product to act like it does in adds ex. a toy train will have smoke coming out of it respond better to programs that are slow-paced and with lots of repetition ex. Barney - Clean Up Song : repetition Believe information in commercials is true, generally unable to separate commercials from television programs Children pays just as much attention to ads and programs while adults get up to use the restroom…can recognize ads are not part of the program - not important Not fair to advertise to them, cannot recognize they are being sold to Unable to recognize that the shows/advertisements are there to sell, not just for enjoyable viewing Cannot recognize someone else’s viewpoint Demonstrate centration- phenomenon in which they ﬁxate on one particular detail to the exclusion of others Ex. Children at this age would not like Beauty and the Beast Beast looks too scary…cannot recognize he is a good guy - would be terriﬁed As consumers, leads them to be unable to judge multiple variables of purchasing, instead focusing on one feature ex. sounds, color Unable to keep minds oﬀ tempting products for long poor ability to regulate impulse control - pestering parents Have little disappointment, everything is high expectation and joyous interaction Under the age of 5- unable to use strategies to delay gratiﬁcation Makes for potentially diﬃcult parenting situations Early Elementary School (age 5-8): Adventure and the First purchase continue to exhibit centration, although it begins to decline The coyote (who keeps dying) is recognized as unreal Begin to separate reality from fantasy, but believe that everything that looks real probably is real Attention span lengthens to almost an hour Begin to enjoy fast-paced entertainment, more complicated plots, character and humor begin to make independent purchases snack time, buy candy Does Children’s Screen Time Predict Requests for Advertised Products? Prospective cohort study published in the Archives of Pediatric Adolescent Medicine Participants: 827 third grade children; 386 students in 6 schools were followed for 20 months Results: Children’s screen media time was signiﬁcantly associated with concurrent requests for advertised toys and food/drinks Screen media exposure is a prospective risk factor for children’s request for advertised products Later Elementary School (8-12): Conformity and Fastidiousness Opinions o peers play an increasingly important role Begin to be able to critically evaluate and compare products and information Become attached to real-life heroes Celebrity endorsements come into play Begin to appreciate quality of programing not simple one interesting quality Begin to collect or accumulate products, often with an eye toward social aspect Want to be at the Top at the hierarchy Abercrombie Life Satisfaction and Materialism Materialism and life satisfaction are known to be associated Research among adults has suggested that materialism and life satisfaction negatively aﬀect each other, leading to a downward spiral Cross-sectional research among children has indicated that materialistic children are less happy, but causality remains uncertain
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