Elem PSYC Notes up to 3/4/16
Elem PSYC Notes up to 3/4/16 PSYC 1101
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alex Clark on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Welsh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 14 views. For similar materials see Elem Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
For Module 3, things you do NOT need to memorize: - Specific neurotransmitters and their effects/functions, (however you SHOULD know what agonists and antagonists are) - The details about how action potentials occur (the stuff about sodium and potassium ions) Cells of the Nervous System Section Afferent nerve fibers allow us to feel the squeeze on our shoulders while efferent nerve fibers allow us to squeeze the next shoulder in line. Sleep : a periodic, natural, reversible, and near total loss of consciousness. It is beneficial for recuperation, growth, and mental function. REM: Rapid Eye Movement: a recurring sleep stage during which vivid dreams commonly occur At night time, pineal gland releases sleep hormones like melatonin. NREM1: experience hypnagogic sensation (body feels like it’s falling and may jerk) NREM2: sleep spindles NREM3: delta waves REM sleep: vivid dreams. Motor cortex is going crazy, but brainstem is blocking message, so your muscles are relaxed (except for your eyes) Sleep deprivation can cause: depression, weight gain, immune system suppression, slow reaction time Disorders: Insomnia: persistent trouble falling or staying asleep Narcolepsy: uncontrollable sleep attacks Sleep apnea: sleeper momentarily stops breathing Night terrors: during NREM3 sleep, not like nightmares in REM sleep 0 = no risk 1 = some risk 2 = moderate risk 3 = extreme risk Alcohol: avrg 1.667 Potential for causing physical harm or negative health effects to the user: 2 Potential for physical dependence and psychological dependence: 2 Potential for negative effects on society: 1 Marijuana: avrg .667 1 0 1 Oxycodone: avrg2 2 3 1 Ecstasy: avrg1.667 2 1 2 LSD: avrg1.667 2 1 2 Meth: avrg 3 3 3 3 US Drug Classification System Alcohol: Marijuana: 1 Oxycodone: 2 Ecstasy: 1 LSD: 1 Meth: 2 Hypnosis: State of heightened relaxation and suggestibility - not asleep - able to control behavior, will not act against your will Who? - 10% easily, 10% not at all, everyone else in between Need: - good concentration - ability to relax - strong visual imagery “Amazing feats” - often able to perform “amazing” feats under hypnosis. - Problem we’re missing a control group sometimes SLEEP: Average sleep cycle for an 8 hour night’s sleep: Awake Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM (----- complete cycle: takes about 90 minutes) Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 4 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM (second complete cycle, changes now) Stage 2 Stage 3 Stage 2 REM Stage 2 REM Stage 2 REM Awake More time in stage 2 sleep than any of the others, because regardless of where you are in the night’s sleep, you go through stage 2 the most. We dream during REM sleep and also during nREM. REM sleep dreams are the ones we think of, because they are more memorable (more emotional, strange, etc). When we dream during nREM, dreams are usually boring (about everyday things). Dreams tend to reflect our daily life experiences. We tend to dream about stuff we are currently dealing with, familiar places or people. Ideas: we dream as a means of practicing possible solutions for life situations in case we get to them in real life, we dream to explain why things have happened, we dream Disorders Narcolepsy: can sometimes be brought on by strong emotions. a symptom that is sometimes related to narcolepsy is cataplexy REM Behavior Disorder: acting out your dreams Sleepwalking: not dreaming Sleep paralysis: body is asleep, mind is awake. In REM sleep, muscles are mostly paralyzed, but here, mind can wake up before the sleep paralysis wares off. Person wakes up, feeling paralyzed. It typically only lasts a few minutes before your body snaps out of it, but it can feel to the patient like it lasts a lot longer. Cause: brain becomes aware before deep muscle relaxation of REM stops. Stress, sleep deprivation, genetics, and alcohol all increase likelihood. Hypnogogic Sleep Paralysis: in addition to paralysis, experience hallucinations. Common: experience an old woman hovering down by your feet. Different cultures experience different hallucinations. Vision: Inattentional Blindness: focusing in one one thing so strongly that you miss other things surrounding. This can be dangerous in our everyday life Change blindness: not noticing changes after there is a break in vision (it gets covered up for a minute) Bottom-Up Processing: perceiving word by taking small pieces of perception and adding them together until we figure out what it is we’re perceiving. Building up a perception Top Down Processing: perception is driven by cognition/thinking. Figure out what something is based on context, expectations, biases. Figure out based on everything surrounding it. Blindspot: where your optic nerve leaves your eye, you can’t have cones and rods there because it’s a hole. When the axons leave the eye, there’s nothing to pick up the light, causing a blind spot Cornea: covers eye and keeps it safe Pupil: a hole (black spot in eye), opens hole to let in more light, closes to let in less Lens: focuses light on back of the eye
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