HDFS Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development
HDFS Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development 629152
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development JeanMarc Itard’s work is the earliest in the study of child development I. Developmental Science Developmental Science: an interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on the changes that children undergo from conception onward. The understanding of the basic biological and cultural processes that account for the complexities of development. To devise ways of safeguarding children’s health and wellbeing. The Field of Developmental Science Developmentalists divide the time between conception and adulthood into five periods: 1. The prenatal period (conception to birth) 2. Infancy (birth through 2) 3. Early Childhood (ages 2 ½ to 6) 4. Middle Childhood (ages 6 through 12) 5. Adolescence (ages 12 through 18) Domains of Development The four major areas of development children undergo: 1. Social 2. Emotional 3. Cognitive (intellectual) 4. Physical What Shapes Development Physical Environment Cultural Beliefs Family and Peers Neighborhood and Communities Institutions II. Children, Society, and Science Historical and cultural context of developmental science. Medieval Europe: children as miniature adults. Protestant Reformation:harsher childraising practices History of Developmental Science Industrial Revolution Altered family life, education, and work. Contributed to the rise of developmental science. Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Origin of Species New scientific interest in children Early Twentieth Century Developmental science as a recognized field III. The Central Issues of Development Science Research focuses on four fundamental issues: 1. Sources of Development 2. Plasticity 3. Continuity/Discontinuity 4. Individual Difference Sources of Development Nature: Refers to the individual’s inherited biological predispositions. Nurture: refers to the influences on the individual of the social and cultural environment and of the individual’s experience. Plasticity Sensitive Periods: A time in an organism’s development when a particular experience has an especially profound effect. Critical Period: A period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for normal development to occur. Continuity/Discontinuity Continuous: Consisting of the gradual accumulation of small changes (quantitative changes) Discontinuity: Involves a series of abrupt, radical transformation (qualitative changes) IV. Theories of Development Theory plays an important role in developmental science. Theory: A broad conceptual framework to guide the collection and interpretation of facts. Theoretical Perspectives Four Grand Theories 1. Psychodynamic Theories 2. Behaviorism 3. Piaget’s Constructivist Theory 4. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Psychodynamic Theories Theories exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of the universal biological drives and life experiences of individuals. Key Psychodynamic Theorists Sigmund FreudIn which psychosexual stages are associated with the changing focus of the sex drive. Erik EriksonIn which psychosocial stages are associated with tasks or crises shaped by social and cultural factors. Behaviorism Theories that focus on development as the result of learning, behavioral changes resulting from the individual’s forming associations between behavior and consequences. Key Learning Theorists John B. Watson Edward Thorndike B.F. Skinner Piaget’s Constructivist Theory Piaget’s theory, in which cognitive development results from children’s active construction of reality based on their experiences with the world. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory Vygotsky’s theory focuses on the role of culture in development and on children learning through finely tuned interactions with others who are more competent. Zone of Proximal Development: The gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent. Influential Modern Theories Four Modern Theories 1. Evolutionary TheoriesTheories look at how human characteristics contributed to the survival of the species and to how our evolutionary past influences individual development. Concept of Ethology, 2. Social Learning TheoriesTheories that focus on the learning of associations between behaviors and their consequences but emphasize learning that occurs through the observation of, and interaction with, others. 3. InformationProcessing TheoriesTheories look at how children process, store, organize, retrieve, and manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways. Analogous with computer processing. 4. Systems TheoriesTheories that envision development in terms of complex wholes made up of parts and that explore how these wholes and their parts are organized and interact over time. Dynamic system theory: Focuses on the development of new systems of behavior from the interaction of less complex parts. Ecological systems theory: Focuses on the organization of the environmental contexts within which children develop. V. Methods of Studying Development Goals of Developmental Research 1. Basic Research: designed to advance scientific knowledge of human development. 2. Applied Research: designed to answer practical questions related to improving children’s lives and experiences. 3. Action Research: designed to provide data that can be used in social policy decision making. Criteria of Developmental Research Objectivity Reliability Replicability Validity Ethically Sound Naturalistic Observation Involves watching children in the course of their everyday lives and recording what happens. Experiments Consist of introducing some changes in a group’s experience and measuring effects on the group’s member, who are composed to a similar group that did not undergo the experience. Clinical Interviews Allows researchers to tailor data collection to each research participant. Research Design Longitudinal design: studies the same children repeatedly over a period of time. Crosssectional design: studies children of different ages at a single time. Cohort sequential design: combines the longitudinal and crosssectional approaches by studying cohorts over time. Microgenetic design: studies the same children over a short period, often one of rapid change.
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