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HDFS Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development

by: Jaime Dolan

HDFS Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development 629152

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Jaime Dolan
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Main Points of Chapter 1
The Development of Children
Krysta Murillo
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jaime Dolan on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 629152 at penn state berks taught by Krysta Murillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see The Development of Children in Child Development at penn state berks.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 1 The Study of Human Development  ­Jean­Marc Itard’s work is the earliest in the study of child development I. Developmental Science  ­Developmental Science: an interdisciplinary field of study that focuses on the changes that  children undergo from conception onward. ­The understanding of the basic biological and cultural processes that account for the  complexities of development.  ­To devise ways of safeguarding children’s health and well­being.  The Field of Developmental Science  ­Developmentalists divide the time between conception and adulthood into five periods: 1. The prenatal period (conception to birth) 2. Infancy (birth through 2) 3. Early Childhood (ages 2 ½ to 6) 4. Middle Childhood (ages 6 through 12) 5. Adolescence (ages 12 through 18) Domains of Development  ­The four major areas of development children undergo: 1. Social  2. Emotional  3. Cognitive (intellectual) 4. Physical  What Shapes Development  ­Physical Environment  ­Cultural Beliefs ­Family and Peers  ­Neighborhood and Communities  ­Institutions  II. Children, Society, and Science  ­Historical and cultural context of developmental science. ­Medieval Europe: children as miniature adults.  ­Protestant Reformation:harsher child­raising practices History of Developmental Science  ­Industrial Revolution  ­Altered family life, education, and work.  ­Contributed to the rise of developmental science.  Darwin’s Theory of Evolution  ­Origin of Species  ­New scientific interest in children  Early Twentieth Century  ­Developmental science as a recognized field III. The Central Issues of Development Science  ­Research focuses on four fundamental issues: 1. Sources of Development 2. Plasticity  3. Continuity/Discontinuity  4. Individual Difference  Sources of Development  ­Nature: ­Refers to the individual’s inherited biological predispositions. ­Nurture: ­refers to the influences on the individual of the social and cultural environment and of  the individual’s experience. Plasticity  ­Sensitive Periods: ­A time in an organism’s development when a particular experience has an especially  profound effect. ­Critical Period: ­A period during which specific biological or environmental events are required for  normal development to occur.  Continuity/Discontinuity  ­Continuous: ­Consisting of the gradual accumulation of small changes (quantitative changes) ­Discontinuity:  ­Involves a series of abrupt, radical transformation (qualitative changes) IV. Theories of Development  ­Theory plays an important role in developmental science.  ­Theory: ­A broad conceptual framework to guide the collection and interpretation of facts.  Theoretical Perspectives  ­Four Grand Theories  1. Psychodynamic Theories 2. Behaviorism  3. Piaget’s Constructivist Theory  4. Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  Psychodynamic Theories  ­Theories exploring the influence on development and developmental stages of the universal  biological drives and life experiences of individuals. Key Psychodynamic Theorists ­Sigmund Freud­In which psychosexual stages are associated with the changing focus of the sex  drive.  ­Erik Erikson­In which psychosocial stages are associated with tasks or crises shaped by social  and cultural factors.  Behaviorism  ­Theories that focus on development as the result of learning, behavioral changes resulting from  the individual’s forming associations between behavior and consequences.  ­Key Learning Theorists  ­John B. Watson  ­Edward Thorndike  ­B.F. Skinner Piaget’s Constructivist Theory  ­Piaget’s theory, in which cognitive development results from children’s active construction of  reality based on their experiences with the world.  Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory  ­Vygotsky’s theory focuses on the role of culture in development and on children learning  through finely tuned interactions with others who are more competent.  ­Zone of Proximal Development: ­The gap between what children can accomplish independently and what they can  accomplish when interacting with others who are more competent.  Influential Modern Theories ­Four Modern Theories  1. Evolutionary Theories­Theories look at how human characteristics contributed to  the survival of the species and to how our evolutionary past influences individual  development. Concept of Ethology, 2. Social Learning Theories­Theories that focus on the learning of associations  between behaviors and their consequences but emphasize learning that occurs through the observation of, and interaction with, others. 3.  Information­Processing Theories­Theories look at how children process, store,  organize, retrieve, and manipulate information in increasingly efficient ways. Analogous  with computer processing. 4. Systems Theories­Theories that envision development in terms of complex  wholes made up of parts and that explore how these wholes and their parts are organized  and interact over time.   ­Dynamic system theory: ­Focuses on the development of new systems of behavior from the interaction of less  complex parts. ­Ecological systems theory: ­Focuses on the organization of the environmental contexts within which children  develop. V. Methods of Studying Development ­Goals of Developmental Research  1. Basic Research: designed to advance scientific knowledge of human  development. 2. Applied Research: designed to answer practical questions related to improving  children’s lives and experiences.  3. Action Research: designed to provide data that can be used in social policy  decision making. ­Criteria of Developmental Research  ­Objectivity  ­Reliability  ­Replicability ­Validity  ­Ethically Sound  ­Naturalistic Observation  ­Involves watching children in the course of their everyday lives and recording what  happens. ­Experiments  ­Consist of introducing some changes in a group’s experience and measuring effects on  the group’s member, who are composed to a similar group that did not undergo the experience. Clinical Interviews  ­Allows researchers to tailor data collection to each research participant.  Research Design  ­Longitudinal design: studies the same children repeatedly over a period of time.  ­Cross­sectional design: studies children of different ages at a single time.  ­Cohort sequential design: combines the longitudinal and cross­sectional approaches by studying cohorts over time.  ­Microgenetic design: studies the same children over a short period, often one of rapid change. 


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