Chapter 11 Notes: Intelligence
Chapter 11 Notes: Intelligence PSY 151
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 11: Intelligence Wednesday, May 27, 2015 6:41 PM What is intelligence? Main Point: Intelligence is two general abilities plus many distinct but related narrower abilities What makes some people "smarter" or more intelligent than others? - Process information faster fluid intelligence crystallized intelligence - Answers quickly fluid intelligence - Better deductionf luid intelligence - Ability to store information - Better decision makingc rystallized intelligence - Better decisions in everyday lif rystallized intelligence - Better able to detect patterns luid intelligence What do you think of when you think of the smartest person that you know? - Gets good gradesc rystallized intelligence - Graduating earlyc rystallized intelligence - Good habits/organization c ystallized intelligence - Larger vocabulary rystallized intelligence - Variety of skills fluid intelligence crystallized intelligence Why/How do we measure intelligence? Why do we measure intelligence? - Schools: want to choose the most intelligent student - Jobs: intelligence related to hiring people for certain jobs - Military: leadership positions require smart people - Interest/Curiosity What are ways to measure intelligence (tests)? - Types of Intelligence tests ○ Quantitative Reasoning ○ Abstract Reasoning ○ Memory ○ Categories: Verbal/Performance (see pg. 314 chart) What are ways to measure intelligence (tests)? - Types of Intelligence tests ○ Quantitative Reasoning ○ Abstract Reasoning ○ Memory ○ Categories: Verbal/Performance (see pg. 314 chart) ○ Many types of intelligence are correlated § Many people who score high on certain questions score high on other questions -- the types of intelligence are correlated Is the test measuring what you intended to measure (intelligence)? - Validity ○ School grades + IQ --> +0.3 to +0.4 correlation Types of Jobs + IQ--> more complex jobs & higher IQ are correlated; ○ less complex jobs & lower IQ are correlated ○ Performance in Jobs + IQ --> +0.2 to +0.6 correlation ○ Therefore, the performance on those IQ testis reallymeasuring intelligence How do we measure intelligence quantitatively? ○ Binet-Simon Scale: an intelligence tests developed by Binet and Simon in 1905; the precursor to the Stanfordinet Scale § Norms: data obtained by large numbers of individuals that permit the score of any one individual to be assessed relative to the scores of his or her peers § Mental age: a measure of a person's intellectual development; the average level of intellectual development that could be expected in a child of a particular age ○ Stanford-Binet Scale: n intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according to mental age; provides the standard measure of the IQ ○ Intelligence quotient (IQ): a simplified single measure of general intelligence; by definition, the ratio of a person's mental age to his or her chronological age § Ratio IQ: a formula for computing the intelligence quotient; mental age divided by chronological age, multiplied by 100 § Deviation IQ:a procedure for computing the intelligence quotient; compares an individual's score with those received by other individuals of the same chronological age ○ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): an intelligence test for adults devised by David Wechsler; contains subtests divided into verbal and performance categories ○ Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCan intelligence test for children devised by David Wechsler; similar in form to the WAIS other individuals of the same chronological age ○ Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS): an intelligence test for adults devised by David Wechsler; contains subtests divided into verbal and performance categories Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISCan intelligence test for ○ children devised by David Wechsler; similar in form to the WAIS What is the structure of intelligence? - Athletic Ability analogy ○ General Athletic Ability intelligence agility size strength ○ You can have sub-abilities that are related to the general ability § Crystallized Athletic Ability □ Ball catching § Fluid Athletic Ability □ Vertical leap □ Raw athletic abilities - Intelligence ○ Tests: cross-category tests are correlated -+0.2; within the categories are +0.-+0.4 ○ Test takers recognize that there is only one overall genral ity of intelligence that is related to all of these factors § Verbal: vocab; meaning of a sentence § EMS (Evaluation of Meaning Systems) § CMR § NF § IR § CFR § R ○ The correlation between all of these tests represeGa neral Mental Ability § Some of the tests are more correlated to each other than they are to other tests □ There are specific sub-abilities for each of the colored categories ® Crystallized Intelligence: words, how well you can work with numbers, etc. ◊ Expressed in general knowledge and skills ◊ Learned/developed through exposure to information/experiences ® Fluid Intelligence: inductive reasoning about numbers ; relationships of patterns work with numbers, etc. ◊ Expressed in general knowledge and skills ◊ Learned/developed through exposure to information/experiences ® Fluid Intelligence: inductive reasoning about numbers ; relationships of patterns ◊ Basic mental operations/raw skills/aptitutes How does intelligence change with age? MAX Fluid Intelligence peaks at age 25 Crystallized Intelligence peaks between ages 60-80 but continues to grow exponentially AGE
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