Chapter 6 - Emotion
Chapter 6 - Emotion PSYC 2130
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rebecca Stewart on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2130 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Kathleen Burke in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes Chapter 6 – Emotion Objectives: 1. What is Emotion? 4. Emotions and Social Cognition 2. Are Emotions Universal? 5. Happiness 3. Emotions and Social Relationships 6. Cultivating Happiness 1. What is Emotion? • Characteristics: • Brief and Specific • Different from moods • Moods can last for days • Moods are more general (“I’m just I a bad mood”) but Emotions have a specific object • I’m happy that I got a hug • I’m embarrassed because the class noticed that my pants are on backwards • Psychological and physiological • Feeling fearful, thinking fearful thoughts, faster heart rate, and sweating • Help humans meet goals • Many of these are social goals • Example: guilt -> motivated to apologize, reconcile • But emotions don’t always help… • If embarrassment/sadness causes you to distance yourself, or if you are rude while angry • Emotional Experience • Two factor theory • Undifferentiated state of arousal (same across emotions) • Attribution of arousal (explanation) • Emotions are the explanations attached to arousal • Sometimes our emotions are ambiguous • Two factors: • Arousal and attribution • Experiment: misattribution of arousal (Dutton and Aron, 1974) § Men cross a high, scary bridge or a lower safer bridge § Afterward, female interviewer asks them to do surveys, and provides her phone number • Supposedly, so that the participant can ask further questions about the project • Participants in scary bridge condition more likely to call her 2. Are Emotions Universal? • Emotional expression – an observable sign of an emotional state 1 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes • Universality Hypothesis – emotional expression that has the same meaning for everyone = cross-cultural • Paul Ekman – video • Basic emotions: • Surprised • Anger • Fear • Happiness • Disgust • Sadness • Ekman’s study is vulnerable to free-response critique • Participants given the terms to label the facial expressions • If had to come up with them on their own, may have used different terms that are more appropriate to their culture • Example: Gratitude rather than happiness • Are emotions universal? • No, in a way • Emotion accents • Example: tongue bite (in India) which means that they are in embarrassed • Display rules – norms for the control of emotional expression • Four techniques: • Intensification – exaggerating one’s expressions • Deintensification – toning down one’s expressions • Masking – expressing differently than your actual emotions • Neutralizing – displaying no expression despite an emotion § Cultural rules of emotion expression: • More expressive in Southern US • Japanese avoid negative emotions • Boys express anger but not sadness 3. Emotions and Social Relationships • Social relationships • “Emotions are the grammar of social relationships” –Eibl-Eibesfeldt • Touch – people can communicate through tactile contact as much as they can through facial expression • Experiment (Hertenstein and coleagues, 2006) • Touchee and toucher • Toucher tried to exhibit certain emotions by touching the touchee • Results: • American and Spaniards were able to communicate prosocial emotions (love, compassion, gratitude) • Spaniards were better at this • Emotional mimicry – people tend to imitate and copy the emotional expressions of others and to synchronize their actions with others • Examples: smiles, posture, touch face, laugh, blush 2 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes • Mimicry helps us understand how others feel • Produces closeness • Experiment (Anderson and colleagues, 2003) • Roommates’ mimicry predicted closeness of friendship throughout the year • Produces similarity -> closeness and liking of other • Oxytocin – hormone of neuropeptide involved in uterine contractions, lactation, maternal bonding, sexual interaction • A trigger of closeness, love, and trust in humans • Experiment (Kosfeld and colleagues, 2005) • Participants given oxytocin trusted their partners more than those given saline and gave more money to their partner • Emotional Intelligence – the ability to reason about emotions ad to use emotions to enhance reasoning • Four skills involved: • An ability to accurately perceive others’ emotions • An ability to understand one’s own emotions • An ability to use current feelings in making decisions • An ability to manage one’s emotions in way that are fitting to the current situation • Video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dmz9Yb9dWck • 5 categories of emotional intelligence: • Self-awareness • Self-regulation • Social skills • Motivation • Empathy – most important for career success • Emotional intelligence test: http://www.saluminternational.com/pdf/emotint.pdf 4. Emotions and Social Cognition • Feelings as information • Theory that we often rely on our emotions when making complex judgments • Example: life satisfaction • Much simpler than thinking about all aspects • Example: Health, wealth, etc. • Experiment (Schwarz and Clore, 1983) • Telephoned people and asked: • How happy they were • How satisfied they were with their lives • Half of the participants were first asked, “How’s the weather down there?” • Emotions and processing styles • Happiness may increase creativity 3 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes • Sadness may make people process carefully (rely less on stereotypes) • So, are happy people less thoughtful? Not always • Hedonic contingency model (Wegener and Petty, 1994) • Happy people may be more likely to process a message thoroughly if they believe it will maintain their happiness • Moral Judgment • Two systems engaged with moral judgments: • Experience gut feelings that orient them to the nature of the moral wrong doing • Rely on more deliberative processes to arrive at a final moral judgment • Assessments of costs and benefits • Considerations of prevailing social norms • Emotions influence reasoning • Processing style perspective – different emotions lead people to reason in different ways • Sadness -> less likely to stereotype others • Anger -> more likely to stereotype others • Happiness -> flexible and creative thought o Experiment (Isen, 1987, 1993) § Induces positive emotion/feeling good: • Gives participants candy, a dime, watch a fun movie clip § When given one word (example: carpet), and asked to produce a related word, those with positive emotion choose more novel association (example: fresh or texture) than those in a neutral state who produce more common responses (example: rug) • Broaden-and-build hypothesis (Fredrickson, 1998, 2001) • Positive emotions broaden thought and action repertoires, helping people build social resources • Empathy • Knowledge 5. Happiness • Positive psychology – the scientific study of the strength and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive • Three central concerns: § Positive institutions (community) § Positive emotions § Positive individual traits • Positive emotions research: • Contentment with the past • Contentment in the present • Hope for the future (optimism) 4 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes • Positive individual traits: • Strengths and virtues • Examples: § Capacity for love § Curiosity § Work § Integrity § Courage § Self-knowledge § Compassion § Moderation § Resilience § Self-control § Creativity § Wisdom • Positive institutions o Strengths that foster better communities: § Justice § Work ethic § Responsibility § Leadership § Civility § Teamwork § Parenting § Purpose § Nurturance § Tolerance • What is Happiness? o Pleasure § Experiment (Fredrickson, 1998 & Kahneman, 1999) • Participants watched pleasurable films and used a dial to rate their experience of pleasure throughout the whole clip • Found 3 determinants of people’s overall assessment of pleasure: 1. Peak moment of pleasure associated with an event • Example: burst of excitement as you win a race 2. How you feel at the end of event • Example: last day of vacation 3. Duration neglect – relative unimportance of the length of an emotional experience in judgments of overall experience • Actually doesn’t matter how long the event was • We are often poor at effective forecasting • Predicting future emotions • Often, life events impact us less than we expected • Immune neglect • Tendency for people to underestimate their capacity to be resilient in responding to difficult life events • This leads them to believe life will be more difficult than is realistic • People tend to be more resilient than expect § See the silver lining, realize potential for growth, laugh at our mistakes • Focalism • Focusing too much on a central aspect of an event while neglecting to consider the impact of other aspects of the event • Example: once I graduate from college, I will be happy 5 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes § Fail to realize there are other things such as finding a job, apartment, new friends, etc. that can contribute to happiness levels as well • Happiness is good for marriage (for a good marriage, need to experience and express five positive emotions for every negative one (Gottman, 1993) • More likely to last if involve more: § Laughter § Love § Gratitude § Kindness § Appreciation • Most powerful source of happiness= relationships • Romantic relationships • Friendships • Family • Neighborhood ties • Can money buy happiness? • Not the way that we often expect it to • Spend money on other people • The more money they spent on gifts for others and charitable donations, the happier they were. Notably, the amount they spent on gifts for themselves, bills, and expenses was unrelated to their happiness 7. Cultivating happiness • Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, Schkade (2005) • 50% of happiness due to genetic factors § Identical twins are 2x as similar in their level of happiness than fraternal twins • 10% of happiness due to quality of environment § Neighborhood you grow up in § Country at war? § The rights, freedoms, and opportunities you may have • 40% of happiness due to activities you choose, patterns of though you develop, way you handle stress, and relationship style you develop with others • To create more happiness, write about the good and bad times of your life • Pennebaker and colleagues studies: § Participants who wrote about a trauma they’ve experienced and the most difficult emotions that they felt attached to this trauma, in comparison to those who just wrote the facts of their trauma, reportedly: • Less likely visited their doctor • Experienced better life satisfaction • Better immune function • Less absence at work or school • Did better in school 6 2/17/16 – 2/24/16 Social Psychology Class Notes • Why does writing down one’s emotions help? • Gain insight into your interior life § Helps to find best ways to deal with hard situations • Reduces stress § When you don’t express your emotions, it can be very stressful • Helps identify the causes of these emotions § Less likely to influence other domains of life • Meditation (page 227 in textbook if interested) • Mindfulness based stress reduction program offered at OSU • Mindfulness - non-judgmental, moment-to-moment awareness of physical sensations, perceptions, affective states, thoughts and imagery (Ludwig and Kabat-Zinn, 2008) • Mindfulness based stress reduction is an 8 week program that integrates didactic material and training in techniques to cultivate mindfulness and homework in: § Meditation § Group discussion § Yoga about daily § Sharing thoughts challenges to being with others mindful while bust § Didactic material with life about stress § Body scan • How can we make ourselves and others happier? • Writing about your emotions • Gratitude • Forgiveness • Laughter, play 7