Chapter 12 Life-Span Development
Chapter 12 Life-Span Development PSY 151
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Chapter 12: Life-Span Development Friday, February 26, 12:25 PM What is Developmental Psychology? • Developmental Psychology:branch of psychology that studies how people change mentally, physically, and socially throughout the lifespan ○ For every age/stage of life, developmental psychologists investigate multiple factors and their influences on development § Biological, environmental, social, cultural, and behavior factors □ Example of social/cultural development: Different cultures have different ways of raising their families and each culture may not approve of the other ○ They study common growth patterns and change and ways in which people differ in their development ○ Developmental psychologists often conceptualize the lifespan in terms of basic stages of development • Traditionally stages of lifespan are defined by age ○ Sudden, age-related changes as we move from one stage to the next § Some aspects of development, such as prenatal development and language development, are closely tied to critical periods ○ Most of our physical, mental, and social changes, however, occur gradually ○ An important theme is the interaction between heredity development and language development, are closely tied to critical periods ○ Most of our physical, mental, and social changes, however, occur gradually ○ An important theme is the interaction between heredity and environment* nature v. nurture Development During Infancy and Childhood • Social and personality development ○ Forming close social and emotional relationships with caregivers is essential to the infant's physical and psychological well-being ○ Temperamental qualities: babies are different § Temperament:i nborn predispositions to consistently behave/react in a certain way § Most researchers agree that temperament has a genetic and biological basis □ Environment can, however, modify a child's basic temperament § In 1950s, Chess & Thomas rated young infants on a variety of characteristics like activity level, mood, regularity, and attention span □ About 2/3 of the babies classified into one of 3 broad temperamental patterns: easy, difficult, and slow-to-warm-up ® Easy Babies: readily adapt to new experiences, generally display positive moods and emotions, regular sleeping and eating patterns ® Difficult Babies: tend to be intensely emotional, irritable, and fussy; cry a lot, and tend to have irregular sleeping and eating patterns ® Slow-to-warm-up Babies:low activity level, withdraw from new situations and people tend to have irregular sleeping and eating patterns ® Slow-to-warm-up Babies:low activity level, withdraw from new situations and people □ 1/3 of the babies were categorized in between the categories ○ Attachment: forming emotional bonds § Correlates (but is not destiny) with future relationships between friends/family § Attachment: the emotional bond that forms between infants and caregivers, especially the mother □ According to the attachment theory,a n infant's ability to thrive physically/psychologically depends partially on the quality of attachment □ In all cultures, the emotional bond between infants and caregivers is an important relationship ® Although there are cultural differences in how the attachment relationship is conceptualized and encouraged □ Infants can form multiple attachments § Secure vs. Insecure attachments □ Secure attachment: occurs when parents are consistently warm, responsible, and sensitive to the infant's needs □ Insecure attachment: may develop when an infant's parents are neglectful, inconsistent, or insensitive to the infant's moods or behaviors § The most commonly used procedure to measure attachment is called the Strange Situation □ Developed by Ainsworth □ Typically used with infants between -2 year olds ® The mother stays with child for a few minutes □ Developed by Ainsworth □ Typically used with infants between -2 year olds ® The mother stays with child for a few minutes ® Then she departs and leaves the child with a stranger ® After a few minutes the mother returns and then leaves again after another few minutes and then returns again ◊ Psychologists assess attachment by observing the infant's behavior during the Strange Situation § The securely attached infant will use the mother as a "secure" base from which to explore a new environment, periodically returning to her side □ Will show distress when mother leaves and greet her warmly when she returns □ Mothers easily soothe securely attached babies § Insecurely attached infants are less likely to explore the environment, even when the mother is present they may appear anxious or indifferent □ Such infants tend to ignore or avoid their mothers when they are present ® Some become extremely distressed when their mothers leave the room and when reunited are hard to soothe and may resist mother's attempts to comfort them Adolescence • A transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, during which: ○ Sexual maturity is reached ○ Identity is explored • Physical and Sexual Development • A transitional stage between late childhood and the beginning of adulthood, during which: ○ Sexual maturity is reached ○ Identity is explored • Physical and Sexual Development ○ Pubertyfollows a predictable sequence for each sex § Internally, puberty involves the development of primary sex characteristics □ Sexual organs § Externally • Social development ○ Generally, when parent-child relationships have been good pre-adolescence they will continue to be relatively smooth during adolescence ○ Relationships with friends/peers become increasingly more important § Peer relationships reinforce traits/goals that parents fostered during childhood; peers are strong and stable sources of change □ Give feedback on social behavior □ Provide an objective standard for self - comparison □ Teach social skills • Identity formation ○ Identity formation: Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development ○ Identity: a person's definition or description of himself or herself § Values, beliefs, ideals that guild individual behavior ○ Erikson's theory of psychosocial developmenc tonsists of 8 stages throughout the lifespan § Key psychosocial conflict facing the adolescent is identity versusi dentity diffusion Stage Age 8 stages throughout the lifespan § Key psychosocial conflict facing the adolescent is identity versusi dentity diffusion Stage Age 1. Trust vs. Mistrust 0-1 2. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt 1-3 3. Initiative vs. Guilt 3-6 5. Industry vs. Inferiority 6-Puberty 6. Identity vs. Role Confusion Adolescence 6. Intimacy vs. Isolation Young Adult 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation Middle-Age 8. Integrity vs. Despair Old-Age § If you fail to make it through these stages, you will not reach optimal level of human development • Development of Moral Reasoning ○ The aspect of cognitive development that has to do with the way an individual reasons about moral decisions ○ Most influential theory of moral reasoning was proposed by Kohlberg § Three distinct levels of moral reasoning: 1. Preconventional: avoiding punishment/maximizing gain a) Children under 10 b) Based on self-interest ® Stage 1: Punishment avoidance is right ® Stage 2: Getting what you can is right 2. Conventional:social roles, rules, and obligations a) Late childhood-adulthood b) What do other people say we should/shouldn't do? ® Stage 3: Behavior that pleases other is right ® Stage 4: Authorities and rules determine a) Late childhood-adulthood b) What do other people say we should/shouldn't do? ® Stage 3: Behavior that pleases other is right ® Stage 4: Authorities and rules determine what is right 3. Postconventional: internalized legal and moral principles a) Protect the rights of all members of society b) Abstract ideas: justice, fairness ® Stage 5: protecting both society and the individual is right ® Stage 6: Universal principles determining what is right § Each level is based on the degree to which a person conforms to conventional standards of society § Each level has two stages that represent different degrees of sophistication in moral reasoning § Criticisms of Kohlberg's Theory: 1. Research was done on all males, but the theory was applied to both males and females a) Gilligan: model is based on an ethic of individual rights and justices, which is a more common perspective for males 2. Some cross-cultural psychologists argue that Kohlberg's stories and scoring system reflect a Western emphasis on individual rights, harm, and justice that is not shared in many cultures Adult Development • Social development ○ Eriksondescribed two fundamental themes that dominate adulthood: love and work § Primary psychosocial task of early adulthood is to form a committed, mutually enhancing, intimate relationship with another person ○ Eriksondescribed two fundamental themes that dominate adulthood: love and work § Primary psychosocial task of early adulthood is to form a committed, mutually enhancing, intimate relationship with another person § During middle adulthood, the task becomes one of generativity: the need to contribute to future generations through your children, career, and other activities ○ Focus of adult friendships differs between men and women § Female friends tend to : confide in one another about feelings, problems, and interpersonal relationships § Male friends tend to : minimize discussions about relationships or personal feelings or problems □ Instead tend to do things together that they find mutually interesting (ex. sports/hobbies) ○ Establishing a committed relationship takes on new urgency in adulthood § Getting married/starting a family - traditional tasks of early adulthood □ Today young adults postpone marriage to finish education/career § Generally we tend to be attracted to people whoa re similar to us in a variety of dimensions □ Physical attractiveness, social and educational status, ethnic background, attitudes, values, and benefits ○ Transition to parenthood § Martial satisfaction tends to decline after the birth of first child □ Tends to rise again after children leave the home first child □ Tends to rise again after children leave the home
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