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NTRI 2000 Week 7 Notes

by: Alyssa Anderson

NTRI 2000 Week 7 Notes NTRI 2000

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Alyssa Anderson

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These are the notes went over in class on Monday and Wednesday. They include diagrams and links to further enhance your studying.
Nutrition and Health
Dr. Greene
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyssa Anderson on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to NTRI 2000 at a university taught by Dr. Greene in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
1 NTRI 2000 Notes Week 7 Fats vs Oils A. These are the physical properties of triglycerides (TG) B. Depends on the makeup of the fatty acids C. For triglycerides to be oils, they must have short chain lengths and/or a lower degree of saturation D. For triglycerides to be fats, they must have long chain lengths and/or a higher degree of saturation Essential Fatty Acids A. Must be supplied by the diet to maintain health B. Omega-3 fatty acid (alpha-linolenic acid) 1. Primarily from nuts, seeds, fish oil, flax seed oil 2. Also found in canola, walnuts, mussels, crab, shrimp, and soybean oil 3. Recommended intake of about 2 servings of fish per week 4. Health related effects of DHA, EPA (omega-3) a. Decrease blood clotting b. Reduce heart attacks c. Decrease inflammation d. Excess may cause hemorrhagic stroke e. Other possible uses: lower triglycerides, rheumatoid arthritis, behavior disorders C. Omega-6 fatty acid (linoleic acid) 1. You need to have about 2-4 tablespoons a day 2. Functions: a. Supports immune system function and vision b. Help form cell membranes c. Produce eicosanoids, which are involved in practically all important functions in the body 2 3. Health Related Effects of archidonic acid (Omega-6) a. increases blood clotting b. Increases inflammation responses D. Signs and symptoms of essential fatty acids deficiency 1. Flaky, itchy skin 2. Diarrhea 3. Increased risk of infection 4. Stunted growth and reduced wound healing E. Use of omega-3 supplements in the U.S. 1. Most commonly used natural product (nonvitamin/nonmineral) in adults 2. About 37% of adults and 31% of children (last 30 days) 3. Side effects and risks a. From the FDA: GRAS-- "generally recognized as safe" b. Minor gastrointestinal upsets, including diarrhea, heartburn, indigestion, and abdominal bloating c. In high doses, can interact with blood thinners and drugs used for high blood pressure d. What about high levels of mercury, pesticides, or polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)? e. Omega-3 supplements do not appear to contain these substances Triglyceride A. Glycerol and 3 fatty acids B. Synthesis occurs stepwise by specific enzymes C. Diglyceride- the breakdown product of triglyceride consisting of two fatty acids bonded to a glycerol backbone D. Monoglyceride- the breakdown product of a triglyceride consisting of one fatty acid attached to a glycerol backbone 3 Question- is it oil or fat? A primary saturated fatty acid is 26:0 (26 carbons and 0 bonds) A primary monounsaturated fatty acid is 8:1 (8 carbons and 0 bonds) Phospholipid A. Structurally similar to triglyceride B. Except a fatty acid has been removed and replaced bt a phosphate-containing group Lecithin- an emulsifier that is produced in the liver, then goes to the gallbladder, then to the small intestine Phospholipid functions A. Forms part of the cell membrane B. Is a component of bile C. It is an important emulsifier of fats in cooking 1. Egg yolk 2. Wheat germ 3. Peanuts 4. Soy beans 5. It is added to many foods in baking Cholesterol A. Has a multi-ring stricture B. Only found in animal products C. Sterols 1. Part of the cell membrane 2. Component of bile 3. Precursor of bile acids (begins digestion) 4. Making hormones such as estrogen and testosterone (sex hormones) 5. Precursor to Vitamin D 4 Digestion of fats A. Starts in the mouth with enzymes in saliva B. Continues in the stomach with enzymes C. Further digestion in the small intestine by emulsification and with enzymes 1. Small intestine = primary site of fat digestion 2. Fat is emulsified by bile into smaller particles 3. Forms small lipid droplet called micelles 4. Bile is recycled D. Enzymes that break down fats- lipases 1. There are salivary, stomach, and pancreatic lipases 2. They only work on fatty acids with short/medium chain lengths 3. The hormone cholecystokinin (CCK) stimulates the release of pancreatic lipase, which digests triglycerides into monoglyceride and fatty acids Fat absorption- take place in the mucosal cells- enterocytes A. In long-chain fatty acids 1. Monoglycerides and long-chain fatty acids diffuse into intestinal cells 2. The current view is that proteins mediate uptake through facilitated transport 3. Some of the transporters are stimulated by insulin (example: FATPs) 4. They are used to reform triglycerides in the mucosal cells (enterocytes) 5. They are packaged in chylomicron (a lipoprotein) 6. Then, they are taken into the lymphatic system B. In short-chained fatty acids 1. Diffuse into the enterocytes 2. Water soluble 3. Taken by capillary to liver via the portal vein 5 Digestion of Phospholipids A. Enzymes are released: 1. From the pancreas 2. From the cells of the small intestine B. Broken down to: 1. Glycerol 2. Fatty Acids 3. Remaining parts Digestion of Cholesterol A. Enzymes are released from pancreas B. Cholesterol is absorbed through specific transport proteins Check out this video of digestion and absorption of fats: 6 Transporting fats in a water environment A. Lipoproteins serve as transport vehicles for lipids B. We know a lot about them because they are associated with heart disease C. They go from the small intestine and the liver to the cells of the body D. Four classes of lipoproteins 1. Chylomicrons 2. VLDL- very low density lipoprotein 3. LDL- low density lipoprotein 4. HDL- high density lipoprotein Chylomicron A. Triglyceride is broken down into glycerol and fatty acids by lipoprotein lipase B. Fatty acids are taken up by the cells of the body 1. Diffusion 2. Facilitated Transport- protein mediated C. Most of the glycerol is taken up by the liver


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