psych week 5 lecture notes
psych week 5 lecture notes Psyc 2070
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This 41 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Carney Jeffress Thorsteinson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
Female Sexual Anatomy and Physiology Outline • External • Internal • Breasts • Menstruation & Menopause External Genitalia External Genitalia External Genitalia: More than a “vagina” • Vulva or Pudendum – entire region of external female sex organs (“crotch”) External Genitalia • the pubic bonepubis – protective, fatty cushion over External Genitalia • Labia Majora – “outer lips”; engorge with blood if excited –hairless; oil glandsh pubic hair; pigmented; Inner: External Genitalia • Labia Minora – no hair; many oil glands – Join at clitoris to form prepuce or “hood”; enclose vestibule External Genitalia: Within the Vestibule • Clitoris – Glans vs. Shaft; much larger than most realize External Genitalia: Clitoris Female Circumcision/Genital Mutilation • Genital circumcision – Not aseptic – Function? • Tradition • Reduction of female sexual pleasure – Clitoridectomy: glans, shaft and hood removed – Infibulation • Clitoridectomy + removal of labia minora • Labia majora fused together with small opening for menses/urination External Genitalia: Vestibule • Introitus – entrance of the vaginal canal – Sometimes partially covered by hymen • Hymen – typically at least partial opening – variation in size and form – may tear during first intercourse – other activities can tearing • Virginity “testing” and hymenplasty – Hymens don’t really “pop”. External Genitalia: Vestibule • Urethral Meatus – opening of the urethra – Short urethra = increased risk of urinary tract infections (UTIs; E. coli) • Poor wiping; scented hygiene products; waiting to urinate • Bacteria forced into vagina during sex External Genitalia: Vestibule • Perineum – between introitus and anus – Wiping direction is important! External Genitalia: Clitoris Internal Genitalia Internal Genitalia: V agina • Vagina – Very elastic (2-3.5 inch at rest) – Lubricant secreted from vaginal wall when engorged rd – Outer 1/3 contains many nerve endings and is tighter and more muscular – Has “friendly” lactobacilli that keep things in balance • Prevents many other bacteria from growing – Has fungi that can overgrow • No douching, please! (Also don’t need soap, scented products, etc.) Internal Genitalia • Grafenberg Spot (G-spot) – small spot in the outer third of anterior vaginal wall Internal Genitalia: Uterus • Uterus – “womb”(nutrition) & menstruation – hollow, muscular organ Internal Genitalia: Uterus – Path for sperm – Implantation of fetus; contracts to expel fetus during birth – Contracts to expel menses during menstruation – Thick wall: 3 uterine layers • Perimetrium: outer; like most abdominal areas • Myometrium: smooth muscle layer; involuntary contractions • Endometrium: outer part shed during menses; site of fetus implantation Internal Genitalia: Uterus – Cervix –secretes mucus to help (ovulation) or impede sperm – Os – opening leading into the uterus – Dilates and softens during childbirth Cervix Internal Genitalia: Uterus • Uterus – pathology – Cervical cancer • 13K women/year in US; 4,400 deaths/year in US • Predisposition via human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamydia, smoking, immune system dysfunction • 75% drop in death rate since 1950’s due to Pap test during pelvic exam; looking for pre-cancerous cells • Treatment via hysterectomy: remove uterus + radiation/chemo treatment; perhaps other organs Internal Genitalia: Uterus • Uterus – pathology – Prolapse: sagging of uterus into vagina • Weakening of ligaments connecting to pelvic floor muscles • Older women with one or more births; obesity; smoking • Treated surgically or via insertion of ring; Kegel exercises Internal Genitalia: Fallopian Tubes – Inner surface has cilia (“hairs”) • Beating motion that moves egg toward uterus – Ampulla – typical site of fertilization Internal Genitalia: Ovaries • Repository of oocytes or eggs (250,000 per ovary) • Ovulation happens in one ovary or the other • Typically release one oocyte per ovulation (period) Internal Genitalia: Ovaries – Ovarian cancer • 22K/yr in US • Risk factors: old age; heredity; early onset of menstruation (menarche); late menopause; no children; obesity; prolonged hormone replacement therapy • Long-term (5+ years) oral contraceptives decreases risk by 60% • Treatment: removal + chemotherapy • Usually detected late: 50% survive 5 years Internal Genitalia: Ovaries – Ovarian cysts: fluid-filled sacs • Usually un-ovulated follicles • Can be cancer marker if found pre-puberty & post- menopausal Breasts Breasts • Breasts (mammary glands) – modified sweat glands that produce milk + fatty tissue – Alveoli & surrounding muscles Breasts Breasts • Nipples in center of areola; darkened skin containing sebaceous glands Breasts • Breast cancer: factors – Genes – Age – Reproductive history – Lifestyle – Hormones Breasts • Breast cancer: treatment Menstruation & Menopause Menstruation • Menstruation: cyclical vaginal discharge of endometrial tissue – Attitudes about menstruation: – Abolishing menstruation? – Toxic Shock Syndrome Menstrual Cycle V ariations in Menstruation • Dysmenorrhea: painful menstruation (cramps) • Premenstrual Syndrome: interferes with daily life (30-50% mild/moderate; 15% severe) – Treatment: •drinkingse: stress, smoking, •vitamin Ae: sleep, exercise, calcium, •Premenstrual Dysphoric If Disorder (PMDD), then SSRIs V ariations in Menstruation • Oligomenorrhea: irregular menstruation • Amenorrhea: absence of menstruation – Primary amenorrhea • never begins menstruation; physical, health, emotional causes, excessive exercise – Secondary amenorrhea • menses cease before reaching menopause; pregnancy, lifestyle, emotional / psychological (anorexia), physical causes Menopause • Loss of libido • Changes in perceived femininity • Hot flashes, night sweats • Vaginal dryness • Hormone Therapy • Vaginal estrogen • Lubricant
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