Intro to Anthropology, Week 7 Notes
Intro to Anthropology, Week 7 Notes ANTH 1101 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nicole Sanacore on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1101 - 002 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by Gregory S. Starrett in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Intro to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
ANTH 1101 – Week 7 Notes Chapter 8 culture – sets of learned behaviors and ideas that humans acquire as members of society. Humans use culture to adapt and to transform the world in which they live socialization – the process by which human beings as material organisms, living together with other similar organisms, cope with the behavioral rules established by their respective societies enculturation – the process by which human beings living with one another must learn to come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling that are considered appropriate in their respective cultures symbol – something that stands or something else human agency –the exercise of at least some control over their lives by human beings holism – perspective on the human condition that assumes that mind and body, individuals and society, and individuals and the environment interpenetrate and even define one another coevolution – the dialectical relationship between biological processes and symbolic cultural processes, in which each makes up an important part of the environment to which the other must adapt ethnocentrism – the opinion that one’s own way of life is natural or correct and, indeed, the only true way of being fully human cultural relativism –understanding anther culture in its own terms sympathetically enough so that the culture appears to be a coherent and meaningful design for living Chapter 9 symbol – something that stands for something else. A symbol signals the presence of an important domain of experience language – the system of arbitrary symbols people use to encode their experience f the world and of others linguistics – the scientific study of language grammar – a set of rules that aim to describe fully the patterns of linguistic usage observed by speakers of a particular language linguistic competence – a term coined by linguist Noam Chomsky to refer to the mastery of adult grammar communicative competence – a term coined by anthropological linguist Dell Hymes to refer to the mastery of adult rules for socially and culturally appropriate speech linguistic relativity principle - a position, associated with Edward Sapir and Benjamin Whorf, that assert that language has the power to shape the way people see the world pragmatics – the study of language in the context of its use discourse – a stretch of speech longer than a sentence united by a common theme ethnopragmatics – the study of language use that relies on ethnography to illuminate the ways in which speech is both consisted by and constitutive of social interaction pidgin – a language with no native speakers that develops in a single generation between members of communities that possess distinct native languages linguistic ideology – a marker of struggles between social groups with different interests, revealed in what people say ad how they say it Module 4 grammar – (see Chapter 9 definition) phonology – the study of the sounds of language morphology – in linguistics, the study of the minimal units of meaning in a language syntax – the study of sentence structure semantics – the study of meaning metaphor – a form of figurative or nonliteral language that violates the formal rules of denotation by linking expressions from unrelated semantic domains Lecture – February 24, 2016 social organization – pattern of human interdependence in a given society through the actions and decisions of its members Emile Durkheim – compared society to an organism I. Organismic analogy a. Structure and function i. A structure observable through action 1. Social facts manners of acting, thinking, and feeling external to the individual which are invested with coercive force exercise control over the individual b. emergent properties – qualities or characteristics of a system that are not shared by the elements that make them up by only by the elements in a group i. transcendent ii. pre-existing II. What does culture do for society? a. establishes boundaries i. external ii. internal race/ethnicity gender socioeconomic class b. establishes identifications with a group totem – represents members of a group c. establishes expectations i. how to be happy 1. social order - content with their lot; convinced they have no right to more d. structures thought and perception i. anomaly – something that falls out of our normal societal expectation; studied by Mary Douglas we deal with anomalies by re-categorizing them controlling them avoiding them labelling them as “dangerous”
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