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psych week 6 lecture notes

by: Khaila Coissiere

psych week 6 lecture notes Psyc 2070

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Psychlogy > Psyc 2070 > psych week 6 lecture notes
Khaila Coissiere
GPA 3.74

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About this Document

male anatomy and pregnancy and birth
Intro to Human Sexuality
Dr. Elizabeth Carney Jeffress Thorsteinson
Class Notes
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This 64 page Class Notes was uploaded by Khaila Coissiere on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 2070 at Georgia State University taught by Dr. Elizabeth Carney Jeffress Thorsteinson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 92 views. For similar materials see Intro to Human Sexuality in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Pregnancy & Birth Leading up to Conception Leading up to Conception Fertilization — Acrosome reaction: when sperm reaches egg ¡ Sperm binds to Zona pellucida (outer cover) of egg ¡ Protein enzymes digest a hole and sperm reaches the egg’s membrane Implantation Detecting Pregnancy —  Hormones produced after fertilization block menstruation —  1-8 weeks after conception: Breast tenderness, fatigue, nausea —  Pregnancy tests detect hormones ¡ Laboratory tests (blood) ¡ Home pregnancy tests (urine)- Try at least 2… ÷ Too early ÷ Too diluted ÷ Incorrect usage —  Confirm at 5-6 weeks ¡ Ultrasound False Pregnancies — Pseudocyesis ¡ Psychological causes ¡ Physical causes ÷ Pituitary gland — Couvade ¡ Sympathy symptoms Prenatal Care —  AVOID: ¡ Alcohol: heavy consumption = Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ÷ Intellectual, behavioral and physical disability ¡ Alcohol: low consumption OK? Probably not… ÷ New CDC report ¡ Caffeine: >200 mg/day (“tall” – “grande”) ¡ Periodontal disease ¡ Smoking increases: ÷ Miscarriage ÷ Premature birth ÷ Low birth weight ÷ Malformations ÷ 1/3 of SIDS related to smoking ¡ Radiation (x-rays) Prenatal Care — Most physicians agree that a woman▯s exercise routine should not exceed her pre-pregnancy exercise levels. — Increased risks to pregnancies of women over 30 include: ¡  Spontaneous abortion, first-trimester bleeding, low birth weight, increased labor time and rate of C-section, and chromosomal abnormalities. — In an uncomplicated pregnancy, sexual behavior during pregnancy is safe for most mothers. ¡  Orgasm during pregnancy is also safe but… Pregnancy The Prenatal Period: Three Trimesters — Full-term pregnancy is actually 37-42 weeks in length ¡ Each trimester is approximately 12 to 15 weeks long. ¡ Naegele’s Rule: ÷40 weeks after onset of last menses ¢ First day of last period 1 Trimester —  The first trimester (weeks 1-13) —  Embryo takes control ¡ Secretes hormones to maintain the pregnancy —  At eight weeks: all organ systems = Fetus —  Mother experiences: ¡ Breast tenderness and size increase ¡ Morning sickness: 50% of women ÷  Taste aversion ÷  If yes, less likely for miscarriage ÷  Toxin avoidance 1 Trimester st 1 Trimester —  Prenatal care ¡  Need 250-300 extra calories/day ¡  Protein, calcium, iron, folic acid ¡  Underweight mom = ÷  Underweight, premature child ¡  Overweight mom = ÷ Premature child ÷ Hypertension ÷ Diabetes 2 nd Trimester — The second trimester (weeks 14-28) involves dramatic growth, development of tooth buds and reflexes (sucking and swallowing) •  Sights and sounds — A lot easier ¡ Early symptoms decrease… except frequent urination ¡ Pregnancy visible & breasts start producing colostrum ¡ Midpoint: fetal movement or “quickening” 3 Trimester — The third trimester (weeks 28-40) includes the final weeks of pregnancy and ends with the birth of a child. — The fetus gains both fat deposits and muscle mass; can react to pain, light, and sounds; majority of organ systems well developed. ¡ Fetus is ~2 pounds & might survive birth rd 3 Trimester —  The mother develops colostrum secreted from the nipples as the breasts prepare to produce milk for breast-feeding. —  Increased movement & breathing motions —  Braxton-Hicks contractions: occasional and irregular uterine contractions —  Tremendous variation in well-being ¡ Physical: backaches, fatigue, anxiety ¡ Relationship: bonding or fighting ¡ Depression: 1/8 middle-class, ¼ low SES 3 Trimester — Fetal preparation for birth ¡  After 33 weeks: ÷ Changes lungs to breathe air ÷ Liver produces glycogen for brain fuel supply during birth ÷ Alters red blood cell hemoglobin for life in the air Problems during Pregnancy — Ectopic pregnancies ¡ Fallopian tube (tubal pregnancies) ¡ Cervix or ovaries — 1 in 50 in the U.S. ¡ Pelvic inflammatory disease ¡ Smoking and STIs Embryos Do Not Survive —  50% of embryos are not viable —  Of detected pregnancies, 20% self-terminate ¡  Usually first three months; likely chromosomal damage —  Rh Incompatibility : fetus Rh+ & mom is Rh- ¡  Antigen on surface of red blood cells ¡  Mother develops antibodies against Rh if fetal-mother blood contact ¡  Subsequent immune attack on successive babies st ¡  Give immunoglobulin during 1 delivery/pregnancy Childbirth Preparing for Birth — Lamaze, etc. — The majority of babies in the U.S. are born in hospital – In the rest of the world: 80% at home… — A few weeks before delivery, the fetus usually moves into a ▯head down▯ position in the uterus, which is called engagement. Childbirth-Stage 1 — Expansion of the opening (dilation) of the cervix (Os) — Effacement — Increased uterine contractions Childbirth-Stage 1 — Possible discharge of cervical plug (“bloody show”) — Amniotic sac may rupture (“water breaks”) — Epidural Childbirth-Stage 2 — Expulsion of the fetus ¡  Cervix has fully dilated ¡  Crowning ¡  Possible Episiotomy — Umbilical Cord Childbirth-Stage 3 —Expulsion of the placenta or afterbirth (30-60min) Pregnancy: Cesarean Section — Delivery through abdomen & uterus ¡  1/3 births in US ¡  Medical reasons: ÷ Pelvis too narrow ÷ Long, complicated labor ÷ Breach birth or placenta blockade ÷ Vaginal infection ¡  Elective C-sections are more risky Pregnancy in the News- Zika Virus —  "Until more is known, and out of an abundance of caution, CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women and women trying to become pregnant," the agency said in its travel advisory. "Abundance of caution" means better safe than sorry. —  "Pregnant women in any trimester should consider postponing travel to the areas where Zika virus transmission is ongoing. Pregnant women who must travel to one of these areas should talk to their doctor or other healthcare provider first and strictly follow steps to avoid mosquito bites during the trip,"  Post-Partum — Recovery from stress of birth ¡ Bloody vaginal discharge for several weeks ¡ Uterus shrinks back to size — Post-partum depression: ¡ Most women experience periods of sadness ¡ Max susceptibility: 10-20 days post partum ¡ 7X more likely to be clinically depressed ¡ Depressive psychosis: disruption of thinking Post-Partum — Low or absent sexual activity ¡ Recommended: wait 6 weeks st — Relationship problems (married couples; 1 child) ¡ Increase (9X) in conflicts ¡ Perceived quality of marriage drops ¡ Adoption of stereotypical roles Breast Feeding — Ready to lactate at 4 months ¡  Milk-let down reflex ÷ Suckling stimulates oxytocin release ÷ Oxytocin causes smooth muscle around alveoli to contract ÷ Milk into duct — Content changes ¡  Right after birth: colostrum ÷ Antibodies not nutrition ¡  By 3 weeks: mature milk ÷ 2 pints/day = 700 calories Breast Feeding — 77% of US mothers… ¡  but only 1/3 after 6 months — Pros: ¡  Health benefits for child ¡  Health benefits for mother ÷ Oxytocin shrinks uterus ÷ Shed excess weight ÷ May reduce risk of ovarian & early-onset breast cancer ¡  Contraception: but requires intensive nursing ¡  Convenient and cheap Breast Feeding — Cons: ¡ 20% develop cracked/blocked nipples (easily treated) ¡ Maternal medication & infection passed on ¡ Inconvenient (use breast pump) — When should you stop? ¡ American Academy of Pediatrics ÷ 6 months exclusively ÷ Partial for 1 or more years Infertility — Fertility rates naturally decline in men and women with increasing age — Options for infertile couples include: ¡  Fertility drugs, surgery, artificial insemination, in vitro fertilization, surrogate parenting, etc. — In vitro fertilization (IVF) Male Anatomy & Physiology February 15 2016 { Male External Genitalia Male External Genitalia External Genitalia: Foreskin • Circumcision •  20-25% of world population •  55%+ of males in the U.S. •  Religious significance in Islam and Judaism •  Male genital mutilation? or corona Circumcision Ñ No medical indication for it at birth Ñ Inability to retract foreskin at birth is NOT a reason to circumcise Ñ Pros Ó  Reduction of urinary tract infections in infancy (still <1%) Ó  Lowers risk of acquiring some STDs and HIV Ó  Lowers risk of penile cancer (incredibly rare) Ó  Kid won’t look “different” Ñ Cons Ó  Surgical risk (infection, hemorrhage) Ó  Reduced sensitivity? Ñ American Academy of Pediatrics: "there is no absolute medical indication for routine circumcision of the newborn." The Penis The Penis Ñ Corpora cavernosa (2) Ó Bulk of erectile tissue: fill w/blood during erection Ñ Corpus spongiosum (1) Ó Maintains space around urethra during erection The Urethra Ó Common tube for both urine and semen Ó Covered by corpus spongiosum Ó Opening: urethral meatus The Penis Glans Ñ Mostly corpus spongiosum Ñ Rim: Corona or Coronal Ridge Ñ Underside: Frenulum Ó can be pierced (Prince ) bert Why is the penis shaped like that? Penis Size Ñ Only way to make it longer is surgery ÓCut the ligaments Ñ Only way to make it thicker is through fat injections Ñ Most that undergo procedures are unsatisfied Ñ Shaving and losing weight ÓObese: increase in pubic fat pad may hide penis The Scrotum ÑLoose bag of skin containing two testicles Ó Some hair + sweat glands Ó One usually lower than the other ÑCremaster muscle: Ó Contracts when cold & during orgas The Root of the Penis Internal Genitalia Internal Genitalia: T estes Ñ Produce & store sperm Ó Need to be 7-12 degrees Fahr nheit below body temp. Ñ Secrete Testosterone Internal Genitalia: T estes Ñ Seminiferous tubules Ó Site of sperm production (spermatogenesis) Ó Starts at puberty Ó 150 million/day Ñ Epididymis Ó Sperm maturation Ñ Vas deferens Ó Transports sperm T esticular Cancer •  7.4K in US/year; 400 fatalities •  Usually in 25-35 y/o •  Lump/pain detected; sudden increase in size •  Family history, frequent marijuana use •  Radiation & chemotherapy (affect fertility) or removal of the affected testicle • Prosthetic option for esthetics Other Internal Genitalia Other Internal Genitalia • Seminal vesicles (2): adds secretion at ejaculation •  Transportation • Prostate gland (1): contains alkaline fluid secreted at ejaculation •  Neutralizes urine and female acidity • Cowper’s gland (2): “pre-cum”; lubricates urethra prior to ejaculation •  No sperm but can mix with sperm from previous ejaculation unless urination occurred Ejaculation (Cont.) Anus as a Sex Organ •  Applies to both males and females •  Penetration or oral or manual stimulation •  Kept closed due to anal sphincter muscles •  External: under conscious control •  Internal: under control of autonomic nervous system •  Most sensitivity here •  Rectum: lowest GI tract •  fairly large, less sensitive •  NOT self-lubricating Prostate Issues Ñ Prostatitis: inflammation (acute or chronic) Ó  Acute: Due to urinary tract infection Ñ Prostate Cancer Ó  Most common (non-skin) cancer in men; 220K in US/year Ó  27K mortality in US/year; 2 in cancer mortality Ô 2x more common in African Americans Prostate Cancer Ñ Prostate Cancer Ó Average age of diagnosis: 70 years Ô  Screening starting at age 45 Ó Detected by increased prostate-specific antigen (PSA) Ó Treatments: active surveillance, surgery, radiation, chemotherapy Ô  Risks: Ò Erectile dysfunction Ò Urinary incontinence Semen Ñ Seminal vesicle fluid (70%) Ñ Prostate + Cowper’s fluid (30%) Ñ 96% water Ó Translucent w/ white, grey, or yellowish tint Ñ Salty, trace amounts of nutrients Ó Fructose, vitamin C, sodium bicarbonate, proteins, magnesium, potassium, and zinc Ñ Volume: 3-5ml (one teaspoon) Ñ Sperm: 200-400 million sperm; 1% of semen


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