Lecture Notes - 2.23.16
Lecture Notes - 2.23.16 PSY 245
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
2.23.16 Stimulant Effects Psychological Insomnia Anorexia Mood elevation Alertness and arousal Reduced reaction time o Vigilance/computer task – healthy young adult take 2 or 3 tenths of a second o Amphetamine/cocaine produces a very slight, few thousandths of a second quicker reaction o One of the reasons why stimulant drugs like this have been associated with cheating in athletics Increased strength and endurance o More oxygen to big muscle groups o Athletes perform with a slight advantage o Horse races – used to give horses cocaine/amphetamine to increase the likelihood that course would win; protect against this today by giving urine tests after races Ladies & Wives Study o Data from a single individual asked to work as hard as they can on an bicycle machine o Revolutions per 15 minutes o Looking at an individual who did not take the drug who are pedaling as fast as they can and over time their ability to sustain that high level is decreasing; after a couple of hours, they’re still maintaining pretty good speed but not much longer than that, things start dropping pretty fast o Individual is given a dose of either cocaine or amphetamine Person is suddenly able to go back to their baseline level of cycling and maintain it for about an hour, then it drops off again o Not a permanent effect but it enhances the individual’s ability to endure sustained physical activity Most controversial performance enhancing feature if their potential effects on enhancing learning and cognition (in sports) o Data on this are complex o In most cases (human and animal literature) you find that the drugs interfere with learning o EX: if you look at complex learning and memory, it tends to make you worse If it’s a simple learning task, you get some enhancement EX: conditioning task; memorizing a list of words o Most of the studies are on amphetamines and related compounds Cocaine not generally studied because it’s so short-acting o Complex Learning and memory effects study Participants given a variety of complex math problems They were stripped of phones and watches so they could not gain access to an electronic calculator Asked to work as many problems as they could Timed test 2 groups Modern dose of amphetamine Placebo control Double blind Participants in the amphetamine condition solved significantly more problems than those in the placebo condition But they made more errors o Amphetamines enhance speed and performance but interferes with accuracy of performance State-Dependent Learning Information learned under the influence of a drug is best recalled under the influence of the same drug; o EX: if you study for an exam under the influence of a drug, (5-hour energy/caffeine) you should take your test under the influence of the drug; can slightly enhance accuracy Also pertains to mood states o Gordon Bower – hypnotically induced emotionality in subjects and studied the effect on performance EX: study happy and test angry, your performance is lower than if you were tested happy o Emotional and drug state affect performance Implications – what does this mean for someone who is dependent on a drug? o Intoxicated all the time for years and now they’re trying to get sober o Their access to memories that were formed while intoxicated would be limited o If you’re in an altered state a lot of the time, you have 2 sets of memories (sober vs. intoxicated) o Almost like a split personality – what are you if not the sum of your memories? o Potential implications for ADHD Stimulant Overdoses 2 causes of death o Considerable CNS stimulation and overdose can increase brain activity to the point You get convulsions and seizures Cardiac failure (heart attack) Although overdoses can be fatal, more likely to experience psychological problems o Stimulant psychosis o Formication syndrome Carl Hart Stimulant Study Give people amphetamines or cocaine Place them in a waiting room Think they’re waiting to do a cognitive test Actually looking at how much they talk to strangers Talk a lot more under the influence of stimulants o Moderate doses mood elevation o High doses intense rush/flash o Higher doses people feel anxious and confused Can turn easily become a paranoid state Users are not just paranoid about legality of the drug There have been studies looking at medical students who were given cocaine or methamphetamine All of them started developing a paranoid ideation in the lab Normally developing individuals who take high doses of amphetamine do begin to get paranoia and crank bugs Cocaine/Meth Dependence & Abstinence When you crash, you end up with depression (cocaine blues) Can experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure/nothing will feel good except another dose of the drug) Short-lived (week or so) Person vulnerable to binging due to intense craving After a few weeks, monoamine levels get back up to normal rates (not craving drug constantly) Problem isn’t getting person off the drug; it’s keeping the person off the drug for an extended period of time Extinction Classical Conditioning o Stimuli paired with something o Drugs are powerful stimuli that produce a variety of responses EX: cocaine user who has stopped using crack Out of treatment and past depression phase Months later run into a friend they used to smoke crack with Now have an intense craving for the drug again Relapse often occurs here Many cues are paired with drugs Drugs still have powerful control over the individual for months or years o Colleague is working on cue therapy Take crack user Show them video of somebody hitting a crack pipe Measure brain waves and pathways associated with craving Wait 30 minutes and cravings pass Do it again After several times of doing this, it’s lost some of its power over the individual o Extinction – gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing ADD/ADHD Occurs in early childhood when child starts school Unable to sit still or learn well in classroom environment Child falls behind in academic performance Teachers typically diagnose this Most common in boys Today there’s an idea that it’s a medical condition, not a disciplinary problem Bradley Psychologist in the 1930s Thought it might be a brain problem Experimented by giving the kids tranquilizers o Sometimes made the problem worse Decided to try amphetamine Hyperactivity stimulant drug “paradox” o Stimulant paradoxically calms a hyperactive child Drugs used to treat ADHD 1960s – with meth epidemic, parents became leery of Shortly after, pharmaceutical firms developed some other drugs First set of drugs were amphetamines (Adderal/Vyanse) o Still used o Most popular brand name is Adderall Use of drugs to treat ADHD found in psychology journals o Teacher recommends drugs to parents o Parents recommend them to physician o Physician prescribes to children Methylphenidate o Ritalin o Focalin o COncerta-extended release o Dyantra-patch Almost all the drugs used to treat ADHD today are major stimulant drugs Effects of these Drugs Very similar to amphetamine and cocaine (more closely resembles amphetamine o Everything he’s said about cocaine and amphetamine rings true to this drug Sympathomimetic effects (no paradox here) Will do this in healthy children & children with ADHD Psychological effects: elevate mood, increase alertness, etc. Key effect is to enhance attention Frequency of Prescription 10 million + prescriptions per year for ages 10-19 alone More than $8 billion per year >6% of American children between 4 and 17 years old receive ADHD meds ADHD Controversy 1. Is it really a disease? o Classified as a disorder in the DSM-5 o Doesn’t tell you much about the etiology or nature of the condition o Disorderly behavior in a classroom can have multiple causes o Maybe the proper question is, is it always a disease? o Do we have diagnostic methods capable of discriminating disorders through more environmentally determined problems? 2. Do Stimulants work? o If you ask a teacher, they will say yes “I can tell that he didn’t take his meds today” o They have effects, but do they really improve learning or classroom performance? For many people they do o The scientific literature is mixed about this Recent research looking at grades in medicated vs. not medicated ADHD conditions don’t always show striking differences No evidence for improved grades after the first year (Sharpe, 2014) – so, for how long do they work? 3. ADHD in adults has some of the same issues o Increasingly being prescribed to adults Side Effects of ADHD medications 1. Growth suppression (not a lot of evidence for this, but can still be a problem) 2. Appetite suppression o Will usually manage this problem by taking kids off the drug on weekends or over the summer o Allows them to catch up with their normal growth o If the person is fine on the weekend or over the summer without the drug, do they really need it while they’re in school 3. Drug abuse o Recent studies have compared adult behavior in individuals who had ADHD as kids who were either treated with stimulant medication or not o The individuals who were not treated with stimulant medication had much higher rates of alcoholism and drug abuse than kids who weren’t o Doesn’t seem to be the stimulant drugs causing the spike in addiction o Individuals who were not treated did more poorly in school and more likely to experience life problems that lead to drug problems o Stimulant medications might have positively influenced their symptoms and protected these individuals from drug problems later in life Other features of the controversy Some drugs benefit both people who suffer from psychiatric conditions and for those who do not EX: if you’re shy, some drugs can keep you more outgoing Cosmetic pharmacology – if a drug can make you less shy and you want to be less shy, why shouldn’t you cosmetically alter your psychological functioning? Why should popping an Adderall be legal when you’re diagnosed with ADHD but illegal when you aren’t if Adderall can help everyone? o Why is it a Class I felony for someone who doesn’t have an ADHD diagnosis to take Adderall, whereas if you have a diagnosis, it’s a Schedule II (medical use) Khat Plant that grows in the Middle East (East Africa – Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia) Prized because of stimulant properties users obtain from chewing it Similar effects to chewing the coca leaf (mild stimulation) Active ingredient deteriorates really fast; no effect if not consumed when fresh Cathinone – major active ingredient o Powerful stimulant o Similar to amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine o Dozens of analogues of methcathinone have been synthesized Began to show up legally in shops on the web Methcathinone (“cat”) is a Schedule I drug that is more potent than cathinone Bath salts are synthetic analogues of methcathinone Typically sold in crystal and in bottles labeled bath salts o Crushed up & snorted o Sometimes taken orally o Sometimes injected Sold as plant food (“Blow”) – “not for human consumption” Once used as an insecticide in Israel Chemists would produce large quantities of this and market them on web or head shops and the individuals would sell them to consumers o Generally escape prosecution o Especially if it’s one of the analogues 1980s Analogue Act o Analogues/synthesized drugs are schedule I o If individuals sales it as plant food, they’re immune from prosecution Brand Names 2009-2010 – Started being sold all around Europe o Mephedrone – one of the key chemicals was marketed as plant food or ivory wave bath salts (“meow meow” for cat) Generally what these had in common was they contained one of the synthetic methcathinones (usually mephedrone) and always labeled as being used for another purpose Legality Spring 2009 – law enforcement and Emergency Rooms noticed increasing incidents with bath salts By 2010 (British Crime Survey) – 7% of adolescents and young adults had reported using bath salts 2010 “Clubbers” Survey (nonscientific) – up to 42% using Used to be legally obtained online the distributed at clubs (less true today) Made illegal in Britain in 2010 o Successful – 5% report usage Action began to shift to the U.S. o Calls to Poison Control re bath salts 2009 – 0 2010 – 304 2011 – 6137 Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, 2012 Recognized the problems of drugs being sold on the internet o Sold in two ways: Deep net – hidden internet with special access required to find Surface web – all of us have access to it; legal drugs can be sold here Synesthetic drugs made it possible for chemists to quickly develop new drugs that were legal, produced in mass quantities then sold internationally on the web, producing a very rapid profit o EX: Great Britain made mephedrone illegal in 2010 and almost immediately nobody was selling mephedrone in Great Britain, but were still selling bath salts (one of the other synthesized) Designed to address the problem of synthetic drugs being rapidly developed o Adds three methcathinone analogues to Schedule I: Mephedrone, Methylone, & MDPV o Also added Spice and THC analogues as well as several hallucinogens (2C-D, 2C-I) First legal regulation of synthetic cannabinoids Extended DEA emergency scheduling powers to 2 years (formerly 1 year) o Gives DEA ability to act more rapidly to deal with array of new drugs being developed Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, 2012 has had some effect but has caused dealers to develop new bath salts Drug Effects The problem with this is that the drugs you would get on the internet now are not these drugs (the synthetic drugs we already know about) Generally, we don’t know what they do but we think they’ll produce effects that are going to be similar to these: Mephedrone, Methylone, MDPV o Effects 15-45 minutes after oral ingestion and last approximately 2-7 hours o Effects 5-30 minutes after intranasal administration and last approximately 2-3 hours o High lasts approximately 10-15 minutes after IV injection, with an overall duration of 30 minutes Physical, Sympathomimetic, & Psychological effects are very similar to amphetamine and cocaine
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