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Lecture Notes - 2.23.16

by: Kristi Dorsey

Lecture Notes - 2.23.16 PSY 245

Kristi Dorsey
GPA 3.871

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About this Document

Here are the lecture notes from Tuesday February 23rd!
Drugs and Behavior
Mark Galizio
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristi Dorsey on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 245 at University of North Carolina - Wilmington taught by Mark Galizio in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Drugs and Behavior in Psychlogy at University of North Carolina - Wilmington.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
2.23.16 Stimulant Effects Psychological  Insomnia  Anorexia  Mood elevation  Alertness and arousal  Reduced reaction time o Vigilance/computer task – healthy young adult take 2 or 3 tenths of a second o Amphetamine/cocaine produces a very slight, few thousandths of a second quicker reaction o One of the reasons why stimulant drugs like this have been associated with cheating in athletics  Increased strength and endurance o More oxygen to big muscle groups o Athletes perform with a slight advantage o Horse races – used to give horses cocaine/amphetamine to increase the likelihood that course would win; protect against this today by giving urine tests after races  Ladies & Wives Study o Data from a single individual asked to work as hard as they can on an bicycle machine o Revolutions per 15 minutes o Looking at an individual who did not take the drug who are pedaling as fast as they can and over time their ability to sustain that high level is decreasing; after a couple of hours, they’re still maintaining pretty good speed but not much longer than that, things start dropping pretty fast o Individual is given a dose of either cocaine or amphetamine  Person is suddenly able to go back to their baseline level of cycling and maintain it for about an hour, then it drops off again o Not a permanent effect but it enhances the individual’s ability to endure sustained physical activity  Most controversial performance enhancing feature if their potential effects on enhancing learning and cognition (in sports) o Data on this are complex o In most cases (human and animal literature) you find that the drugs interfere with learning o EX: if you look at complex learning and memory, it tends to make you worse  If it’s a simple learning task, you get some enhancement  EX: conditioning task; memorizing a list of words o Most of the studies are on amphetamines and related compounds  Cocaine not generally studied because it’s so short-acting o Complex Learning and memory effects study  Participants given a variety of complex math problems  They were stripped of phones and watches so they could not gain access to an electronic calculator  Asked to work as many problems as they could  Timed test  2 groups  Modern dose of amphetamine  Placebo control  Double blind  Participants in the amphetamine condition solved significantly more problems than those in the placebo condition  But they made more errors o Amphetamines enhance speed and performance but interferes with accuracy of performance State-Dependent Learning  Information learned under the influence of a drug is best recalled under the influence of the same drug; o EX: if you study for an exam under the influence of a drug, (5-hour energy/caffeine) you should take your test under the influence of the drug; can slightly enhance accuracy  Also pertains to mood states o Gordon Bower – hypnotically induced emotionality in subjects and studied the effect on performance  EX: study happy and test angry, your performance is lower than if you were tested happy o Emotional and drug state affect performance  Implications – what does this mean for someone who is dependent on a drug? o Intoxicated all the time for years and now they’re trying to get sober o Their access to memories that were formed while intoxicated would be limited o If you’re in an altered state a lot of the time, you have 2 sets of memories (sober vs. intoxicated) o Almost like a split personality – what are you if not the sum of your memories? o Potential implications for ADHD Stimulant Overdoses  2 causes of death o Considerable CNS stimulation and overdose can increase brain activity to the point  You get convulsions and seizures  Cardiac failure (heart attack)  Although overdoses can be fatal, more likely to experience psychological problems o Stimulant psychosis o Formication syndrome Carl Hart Stimulant Study  Give people amphetamines or cocaine  Place them in a waiting room  Think they’re waiting to do a cognitive test  Actually looking at how much they talk to strangers  Talk a lot more under the influence of stimulants o Moderate doses  mood elevation o High doses  intense rush/flash o Higher doses  people feel anxious and confused  Can turn easily become a paranoid state  Users are not just paranoid about legality of the drug  There have been studies looking at medical students who were given cocaine or methamphetamine  All of them started developing a paranoid ideation in the lab  Normally developing individuals who take high doses of amphetamine do begin to get paranoia and crank bugs Cocaine/Meth Dependence & Abstinence  When you crash, you end up with depression (cocaine blues)  Can experience anhedonia (inability to feel pleasure/nothing will feel good except another dose of the drug)  Short-lived (week or so)  Person vulnerable to binging due to intense craving  After a few weeks, monoamine levels get back up to normal rates (not craving drug constantly)  Problem isn’t getting person off the drug; it’s keeping the person off the drug for an extended period of time Extinction  Classical Conditioning o Stimuli paired with something o Drugs are powerful stimuli that produce a variety of responses  EX: cocaine user who has stopped using crack  Out of treatment and past depression phase  Months later run into a friend they used to smoke crack with  Now have an intense craving for the drug again  Relapse often occurs here  Many cues are paired with drugs  Drugs still have powerful control over the individual for months or years o Colleague is working on cue therapy  Take crack user  Show them video of somebody hitting a crack pipe  Measure brain waves and pathways associated with craving  Wait 30 minutes and cravings pass  Do it again  After several times of doing this, it’s lost some of its power over the individual o Extinction – gradual weakening of a conditioned response that results in the behavior decreasing or disappearing ADD/ADHD  Occurs in early childhood when child starts school  Unable to sit still or learn well in classroom environment  Child falls behind in academic performance  Teachers typically diagnose this  Most common in boys  Today there’s an idea that it’s a medical condition, not a disciplinary problem Bradley  Psychologist in the 1930s  Thought it might be a brain problem  Experimented by giving the kids tranquilizers o Sometimes made the problem worse  Decided to try amphetamine  Hyperactivity stimulant drug “paradox” o Stimulant paradoxically calms a hyperactive child Drugs used to treat ADHD  1960s – with meth epidemic, parents became leery of  Shortly after, pharmaceutical firms developed some other drugs  First set of drugs were amphetamines (Adderal/Vyanse) o Still used o Most popular brand name is Adderall  Use of drugs to treat ADHD found in psychology journals o Teacher recommends drugs to parents o Parents recommend them to physician o Physician prescribes to children  Methylphenidate o Ritalin o Focalin o COncerta-extended release o Dyantra-patch  Almost all the drugs used to treat ADHD today are major stimulant drugs Effects of these Drugs  Very similar to amphetamine and cocaine (more closely resembles amphetamine o Everything he’s said about cocaine and amphetamine rings true to this drug  Sympathomimetic effects (no paradox here)  Will do this in healthy children & children with ADHD  Psychological effects: elevate mood, increase alertness, etc.  Key effect is to enhance attention Frequency of Prescription  10 million + prescriptions per year for ages 10-19 alone  More than $8 billion per year  >6% of American children between 4 and 17 years old receive ADHD meds ADHD Controversy 1. Is it really a disease? o Classified as a disorder in the DSM-5 o Doesn’t tell you much about the etiology or nature of the condition o Disorderly behavior in a classroom can have multiple causes o Maybe the proper question is, is it always a disease? o Do we have diagnostic methods capable of discriminating disorders through more environmentally determined problems? 2. Do Stimulants work? o If you ask a teacher, they will say yes  “I can tell that he didn’t take his meds today” o They have effects, but do they really improve learning or classroom performance?  For many people they do o The scientific literature is mixed about this  Recent research looking at grades in medicated vs. not medicated ADHD conditions don’t always show striking differences  No evidence for improved grades after the first year (Sharpe, 2014) – so, for how long do they work? 3. ADHD in adults has some of the same issues o Increasingly being prescribed to adults Side Effects of ADHD medications 1. Growth suppression (not a lot of evidence for this, but can still be a problem) 2. Appetite suppression o Will usually manage this problem by taking kids off the drug on weekends or over the summer o Allows them to catch up with their normal growth o If the person is fine on the weekend or over the summer without the drug, do they really need it while they’re in school 3. Drug abuse o Recent studies have compared adult behavior in individuals who had ADHD as kids who were either treated with stimulant medication or not o The individuals who were not treated with stimulant medication had much higher rates of alcoholism and drug abuse than kids who weren’t o Doesn’t seem to be the stimulant drugs causing the spike in addiction o Individuals who were not treated did more poorly in school and more likely to experience life problems that lead to drug problems o Stimulant medications might have positively influenced their symptoms and protected these individuals from drug problems later in life Other features of the controversy  Some drugs benefit both people who suffer from psychiatric conditions and for those who do not  EX: if you’re shy, some drugs can keep you more outgoing  Cosmetic pharmacology – if a drug can make you less shy and you want to be less shy, why shouldn’t you cosmetically alter your psychological functioning?  Why should popping an Adderall be legal when you’re diagnosed with ADHD but illegal when you aren’t if Adderall can help everyone? o Why is it a Class I felony for someone who doesn’t have an ADHD diagnosis to take Adderall, whereas if you have a diagnosis, it’s a Schedule II (medical use) Khat  Plant that grows in the Middle East (East Africa – Yemen, Ethiopia, Somalia)  Prized because of stimulant properties users obtain from chewing it  Similar effects to chewing the coca leaf (mild stimulation)  Active ingredient deteriorates really fast; no effect if not consumed when fresh  Cathinone – major active ingredient o Powerful stimulant o Similar to amphetamine, methylphenidate, and cocaine o Dozens of analogues of methcathinone have been synthesized  Began to show up legally in shops on the web  Methcathinone (“cat”) is a Schedule I drug that is more potent than cathinone  Bath salts are synthetic analogues of methcathinone  Typically sold in crystal and in bottles labeled bath salts o Crushed up & snorted o Sometimes taken orally o Sometimes injected  Sold as plant food (“Blow”) – “not for human consumption”  Once used as an insecticide in Israel  Chemists would produce large quantities of this and market them on web or head shops and the individuals would sell them to consumers o Generally escape prosecution o Especially if it’s one of the analogues  1980s Analogue Act o Analogues/synthesized drugs are schedule I o If individuals sales it as plant food, they’re immune from prosecution Brand Names  2009-2010 – Started being sold all around Europe o Mephedrone – one of the key chemicals was marketed as plant food or ivory wave bath salts (“meow meow” for cat)  Generally what these had in common was they contained one of the synthetic methcathinones (usually mephedrone) and always labeled as being used for another purpose Legality  Spring 2009 – law enforcement and Emergency Rooms noticed increasing incidents with bath salts  By 2010 (British Crime Survey) – 7% of adolescents and young adults had reported using bath salts  2010 “Clubbers” Survey (nonscientific) – up to 42% using  Used to be legally obtained online the distributed at clubs (less true today)  Made illegal in Britain in 2010 o Successful – 5% report usage  Action began to shift to the U.S. o Calls to Poison Control re bath salts  2009 – 0  2010 – 304  2011 – 6137 Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, 2012  Recognized the problems of drugs being sold on the internet o Sold in two ways:  Deep net – hidden internet with special access required to find  Surface web – all of us have access to it; legal drugs can be sold here  Synesthetic drugs made it possible for chemists to quickly develop new drugs that were legal, produced in mass quantities then sold internationally on the web, producing a very rapid profit o EX: Great Britain made mephedrone illegal in 2010 and almost immediately nobody was selling mephedrone in Great Britain, but were still selling bath salts (one of the other synthesized)  Designed to address the problem of synthetic drugs being rapidly developed o Adds three methcathinone analogues to Schedule I: Mephedrone, Methylone, & MDPV o Also added Spice and THC analogues as well as several hallucinogens (2C-D, 2C-I)  First legal regulation of synthetic cannabinoids  Extended DEA emergency scheduling powers to 2 years (formerly 1 year) o Gives DEA ability to act more rapidly to deal with array of new drugs being developed  Synthetic Drug Abuse Prevention Act, 2012 has had some effect but has caused dealers to develop new bath salts Drug Effects  The problem with this is that the drugs you would get on the internet now are not these drugs (the synthetic drugs we already know about)  Generally, we don’t know what they do but we think they’ll produce effects that are going to be similar to these: Mephedrone, Methylone, MDPV o Effects 15-45 minutes after oral ingestion and last approximately 2-7 hours o Effects 5-30 minutes after intranasal administration and last approximately 2-3 hours o High lasts approximately 10-15 minutes after IV injection, with an overall duration of 30 minutes  Physical, Sympathomimetic, & Psychological effects are very similar to amphetamine and cocaine


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