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Micro Exam 2 Week 2 Notes

by: Luke Holden

Micro Exam 2 Week 2 Notes 3050

Marketplace > Clemson University > Microbiology > 3050 > Micro Exam 2 Week 2 Notes
Luke Holden

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These are the notes from week 2 for exam 2. ( 2/12/16-1/17/16). Like before, they include a lot of her power point pictures as well as some of my own explanations of the material. Great tool if you...
General Microbiology
Dr. Rudolph
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Holden on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 3050 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Rudolph in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see General Microbiology in Microbiology at Clemson University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Micro Exam 2 Week 2 Notes 2/12/16 Flagella Structure  Gram­negative  Filament­ Flagellin type of protein, the actual whip part  Hook­ the little curve in the flagellum  Basal Body o Inculdes  P­ring­ Periplasam ring  MS­Ring­ Membrane (plasma) ring  C­ring­ cytoplasm ring  Motor­Sits between the MS and C ring  Motor o L+P ring  do not rotate/ MS+ C ring  o MOT protein surround MS ring and Cring o Fli­protiens­ commander of the flagellum sit in the MS and C­rings o MEMORIZE THIS STRUCTURE BELOW AND KNOW IT VERY VERY  WELL o Gram­Positive  Only 2 Rings o Because of the diffrences in the cellular envelope  Shown below on the right  Flagellum Characteristics­  How they are Built: o So, it looks like a channel that leads from the cytoplasm to the top of the  growing flagellum (Assembly line) o  They are channeling up flagellin molecules  o CAP proteins stand at the top and direct the flagellin to grow in a circular  direction o Imagine you are unscrewing the bolt from the back of your calculator with a screwdriver, as the screw comes out, you notice it looks like it is  growing by spinning. This is what the CAP protein does to grow the  flagellin.  o It just spins in a circle from one point and puts the proteins down in a  circular fashion. o  How they move: o Gram Negative (Similar to gram positive except a minus a few rings)  2 –part motor that produces torque  Rotor­ This is when the C ring and the MS ring spin and  interact with the stator  Stator­Mot A and B proteins  Imagine a revolving door, where at the very center and top of the  door you hook a flagellum. When you push (H ) on the door  (Cring and MS ring) you will rotate the stable column (L and P  ring) that holds the flagellum  The proton motive force (PMF) (i.e you pushing the door) is the  + real star of the show. This works by shuttling H  across the  membrane between the MOT A protein and the MS and C rings   Takes 1000 protons to turn 360 degrees  (Monotrichous polar Flagellum (fastest))  How they make the Cell move: o Rotates counter clockwise­ causes run o Rotates clockwise­ tumble o Up to 1100 rev/sec o So the way to think about it, bacteria with flagellum don’t have a steering  mechanism to direct their movement (inefficient) o So, when their flagellum rotate, they can only go in one general direction,  then once they have past their target they have to tumble to change  directions o o Peritrichous motility­ bundled flagella that looks like a spinning pony­tail o Spirochete motility­   Multiple flagellum form an axial fibril and wraps around the cell  So, they remain in the periplasmic space (remember they are gram  negative so the periplasmic space is bigger).  And BOOM they turn into an instant drill bit!!! So their movement is similar to that of a wiggling drill bit: spinning and flexing.  o Sticky surface to slide on? No problem!  Twitching­ This goes on with the ends of the cell, involves short  jerky motions  You know those sticky hands that you would get at like chucky  cheese that you could throw out and stick to stuff? (Like these)   Well, same concept, in twitching, the pili at the ends of the  cell, send out their stick hands (polysaccharide) and stick  them to the surface of another cell or the ground. Then they haul them in which causes the cell to move (discontinuous  = twitching)  Gliding­   NO PILUS! We think little baby feet move the bacteria.  A lot of slime production  Gliding motion o Chemotaxis  Movement toward a chemical attractant or a way from chemical  repellent  Concentrations of chemo attractants and chemo repellents detected  by the chemoreceptors on the cells  Complex but very rapid  Response= 20miliseconds  2  +60 cell lengths per second  Positive and Negative  Bacteria are all or nothing type of folks  They will go after something 100 % if they detect it and  want it.   Or they will try not to go near it in the other case  Therefore: o Want it= increase the run= decrease the tumble o Don’t want it= decrease the run= increase the  tumble o 2/15/16 Bacterial Endospores (accidental pathogens) (Find them literality everywhere)  Complex dormant structures formed by the bacteria typically due to the lack of  nutrients in the surrounding environment  Can come back to life (germination)  Typically occurs in gram positive cells  Resistant to o Heat o Radiation o Chemicals o Desiccation (Water loss)  Where the endospore is made: o Central­ center of the cell o Subterminal­ Kinda close to the end bit not all the way o Terminal­Right on the edge of the cell o Swollen sporangium­OMG THE CELL IS A LOLLY POP o  Structure of an Endospore o o Goes Like This:  Exosporangium  Coat  Outer Membrane  Cortex­made out of pep and less linked than the cell wall  Germ cell wall  Inner membrane  Core  E­C­O­C­G­I­C  Every Coat On Corn Glows In Cereal  What makes the endospore so rock solid? o Core­ low water content  Calcium dipicolinate (Ca­DPA)  SASP ­ssmall, acid soluble , DNA – binding protiens  They are double­stranded DNA­binding proteins that cause  DNA to change to an A­like conformation. They protect the DNA backbone from chemical and enzymatic cleavage and are thus involved in dormant spore's high resistance to UV  light (radiation). SASP are degraded in the first minutes of  spore germination and provide amino acids for both new  protein synthesis and metabolism  (  Lower the pH as well o But the real stars of the show are the Exosporangium and Spore Coat  Supreme armor  Ok, cool so it can stand up to some stuff but what makes it so great? o The fact that it is an escape pod for the cell that is virtually invincible  means that the bacteria can keep on going and doing their thing no matter  what   o Germination and Sporulation  3 Steps:  Activation: o Prepares spores for germination o Often results from treatments like heating  Germination: o The nutrients it needs are detected o Spore swelling and rupture of the coat o Loss of resistance but…Increased metabolic activity  Outgrowth: o BOOM vegetative cell shows up from the  germination process 2/17/16 Chapters 11.1,10.1­10.4­ Microbial Nutrition and Metabolism  Requirements for microbial survival and growth (Must haves) o Source of energy  Cellular work o Source of electrons  Role in energy production  Reduce CO2 to form organic molecules o Nutrients  Carbon and hydrogen and oxygen  Synthesize building blocks for cell  to be maintained and grow o Let’s break down energy and electrons  Sources  Organic and inorganic compounds   Energy is obtained through Oxidation of a compound or  Sunlight (energy only)  Energy is usually reserved in the cell and is used as a currency: ATP  Easy to break easy to make   How to classify:  Different places where organisms get there energy: o Phototrophs: use the sun o Chemotrophs: obtain energy from the oxidation of  compounds  Different places where organisms get their electrons o Lithotrophs­ use reduced inorganic substances o Organotrophs­ obtain electrons from organic  compounds  Different places where organisms get their Carbon o Heterotroph­ use of organic molecules as carbon  sources (which often serve as energy and as an electron  source) o Autotroph­ use carbon dioxide as their sole or principal  carbon source o Must obtain and energy and other electons from other  sources o Primary producers  Why all the names?  SAMPLE EXAM QUESTION­  Given these three characteristics, classify this organism  Uses the sun as energy, digests a lot of organic compounds and make frequent use of carbon dioxide  Answer: PHOTO­LITHO­AUTOTROPH o Photo­ energy source o Litho­ electron source o Autotroph­ carbon source Metabolism Catabolism Anabolism Fueling Reactions Synthesis of complex organic molecules (glucose) from simpler ones (ATP) Energy conserving reaction Requires energy and building blocks from fueling reactions Provide reducing power electrons Generates precursors for biosynthesis ON  CONSTANT CYCLE BETWEEN THE TWO


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