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Chemistry 111

by: Ashley Judkins

Chemistry 111 Chem 111

Ashley Judkins
GPA 3.8
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These are the lecture notes- But this will give you the link to look for study guides to help pass the exams!
General Chemistry 111
Kassy A. Mies
Class Notes




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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Judkins on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Chem 111 at Colorado State University taught by Kassy A. Mies in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 111 in Chemistry at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
3.10 The Sizes of Atoms (in pm) Shielding • In a many-electronatom, electronsare both attractedto the nucleus and repelledby other electrons. • The cancellingof the nuclear attractiveforceon an electron due to the electron-electron repulsion is calledshielding. Core electrons are the most effectiveat shielding. Effective Nuclear Charge The effective nuclear charge, Z ,eff the net attraction of an electron to a nucleus after screening. Z eff≈ Z – core electrons • Z effincreases from left to right across a row in the periodic table. • Z effreases slightly as you move down a column. Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements Atomic Radius r = ½ d …decreases from left to right across a row due to increaseff Z and constant n. … increases from top to bottom of a column due to increasing value of n. Sizes of Ions: Ionic Radius • Cations are smaller than their parent atoms. • Anions are larger than their parent atoms. Ionic Radius • Ions increase in size as you go down a column. • In an isoelectronic series, ionic size decreases with an increasing nuclear charge. 3.11 Ionization Energies Ionizationenergy is the energy required to remove one mole of electrons from one mole of atoms or ions. H à H + e - IE1H = 2.18 × 10 -18J + 2+ - -18 He à He (g) + e IE2He = 8.72 × 10 J Why is the IE for He 4 times greater than for H? Trends in First Ionization Energies • Generally, I1increases from left to right across a period. • Within a group, I1 decreases with increasing atomic number. T rends in First Ionization Energies There are two discontinuities in the first ionization energies: Groups 2 and 13 Groups 15 and 16 Successive Ionization Energies Electron Affinities Electron affinity is the energy change accompanying the addition of a mole of electrons to a mole of gaseous atoms: Cl (g) e ⎯⎯→ Cl (g) ΔE = -349 kJ/mol Why is the electron affinity for Cl negative? Trends (?) in Electron Affinity


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