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PY 413 Week of 2/22 Notes

by: Caitlin Owens

PY 413 Week of 2/22 Notes PY 413

Caitlin Owens

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Includes all lecture notes covered since Exam 1 and a short book outline of mechanical senses.
Physiological Psychology
Dr. Gable
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caitlin Owens on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PY 413 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Gable in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Physiological Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
Physiological Psych Exam 2 Vision *50% of cortex is dedicated to visual processing *75% of sensory neurons dedicated to vision *electromagnetic radiation-emission of small particles(photons), visual receptors receive these photons very fast(speed of light) *benefit of light is we don’t have to be in direct contact, light travels in a direct/straight pathway eye & its connection to brain • orbits encompass and protect eyeball in skull-protection from lateral impact • eyelids (by blinking) protect from wind, dust, etc. • tear ducts help eyes stay moist which helps clear “gunk” from eyeball • pathway of light: sclera(white outer-covering of eye)àcorneaàpupil(lets light in; iris can change shape/dilate pupil)àaqueous humor/eye jellyàretina • accommodation-bending of light to reach retina; un-accommodation causes near/far sightedness, can be fixed with corrective lenses visual receptors:RODS & CONES • transduction-takes photons and turns them into neural impulse; physicalàchemical signal • 120 million rods, 6 million cones; 90% of brains input comes from cones • 1 million axons leave the retina • optic nerve runs from back of eye to visual/occipital cortex retina (info from back to front) • photoreceptors-back layer of retina • ganglion cells-transmit information out with optic nerve • bipolar cells-receive input from rods & cones; synapses info to amacrine cells and ganglion cells; impulses can skip these sometimes • horizontal cells-can also receive input from rods & cones; synapses information to bipolar cells; have inhibitory influence on bipolar cells-important for lateral inhibition • amacrine cells-receive info from bipolar cells; help transmit info to ganglion cells; important in shape processing why “backwards” formation? • 3 functional layers 1. stimulus reception (sensory input) 2. signal processing (bipolar, horizontal, amacrine) 3. signal transmission (ganglion) • rods & cones lie at back because they need nutrients from layer of epithelial cells at back of eye; this layer of epithelial cells also blocks/absorbs any extra photons not absorbed by rods & cones to keep light out of rest of nervous system light transduction • photopigments release energy when struck by a photon • dark current-cyclic GMP (cGMP) attached to sodium receptors; keeps them open- slightly depolarized in the dark • transduction occurs when light hits photopigments o Opsin proteins (Rhodopsin-located in rods) o When light is absorbed it breaks into Opsin & Retinal(vitamin A); this causes cascade of processes that changes cGMPàGMP closing sodium gate o In the dark, photoreceptors are more active; vision works on inhibitory transmission (glutamate release in dark, not light) § Functional argument: conservation of energy; in light 2/3 of day fovea (most important part of retina) • Process acute/detailed vision and color • Center of vision • Packed tightly with receptors-mainly cones • Free of blood vessels and ganglion cells • Each photoreceptor (mostly cones) gets very own bipolar & ganglion cell for direct line to the brain • 90% of visual input from the fovea • organisms that look down/up a lot have a second fovea (ex. mice, predatory birds) periphery of retina • rods have less detail/acuity but more light sensitivity • rods do not sense color • convergence of many rods to one ganglion cell theories of color vision • we only see small amount of wavelength, reason we aren’t blinded by radio waves • trichromatic theory(three colors)- 3 different kinds of cones; short wavelength cones (blue), medium wavelength cones (green), long wavelength cones (red); perception of different colors is activation of these cones • opponent-process theory- perceived color is result of paired opposites (ex. when green receptors are activated, red receptors are shut off); bipolar cells are excited by one wavelength but inhibited by another wavelength • retinex theory-cortex pulls info from retina to maintain color constancy limitations • explaining color constancy-light source changes color, we perceive colors to be the same even though light can change them color vision deficiency (not “color blind”) • difficulty seeing certain colors • located on X chromosomes, more common in men (8%, less than 1% in women) • long/medium wavelength cones processed as same color pigment • blind spot-where ganglion cells & optic nerve exit the eye, no receptors here lateral inhibition • starts at the retina, moves to bipolar/horizontal cells • Hermann grid-explanation of lateral inhibition; more in the periphery • helps us see shapes more clearly visual system • ganglion cells/axons form optic nerve • optic chiasm-information coming from both sides of the visual field; left hand vision processed in right hemisphere & right hand vision processed in left hemisphere • information travels to sensory switchboardàthalamusàlateral geniculate nucleus (LGN)àprimary visual cortex(V1) • blindsight-no conscious reporting of vision, can respond to some visual stimuli unconsciously-could be because thalamus sends information to areas other than V1 • retinotopic mapping-V1 is retinotopically organized; info on retina is all sent to V1 like a projector primary visual cortex • Hubel & Weisel (1959, 1998)-different columns in cortex respond to very specific features in visual stimuli • development-needs stimulation to develop o astigmatism-70% of infants have astigmatism, asymmetric curvature of the eyes, inability to respond to certain aspects of vision V2 are a & beyond… • dorsal stream: “where” pathway-moves from V1 to parietal lobe, shows where and how to approach objects o telescope-dorsal stream moves up and helps find where objects are located • ventral stream: “what” pathway-moves toward temporal lobe and helps identify and recognize objects o microscope-look down and identify what you’re looking at • fusiform gyrus-area specific for facial processing in ventral stream; first to develop in infants; one of the most specialized parts of the brain • V4-responsible for color constancy-cortical process o color we see under different light sources is the same o #thedress-example of color constancy, blue and black • V5 (MT)-stimulus movement Sound psychophysics of hearing • Wavelength-measured in hertz (Hz)-waves per second o Pitch (ex. longer wavelengths, lower pitch)-comparative to color in light • Amplitude-measured in decibels-volume/loudness o Comparative to brightness in light sound transduction • Pinna-funnels/directs sound into ear canal, localizes sound • Tympanic membrane(ear drum)- vibrates with the sound, connected to hammer, anvil, and stirrup • Oval window-front of cochlea • Cochlea-fluid-filled area, basilar membrane contains hair cells o Transduction occurs at hair cells-specialized dendrites connected to neurons o Dendrites form axons to form auditory nerve which transports info to brain pathway: spiral ganglion neuronsàmedulla, inferior colliculiàmedial geniculate nucleus of thalamusàprimary auditory cortex(A1) in temporal lobe auditory cortex (A1) • Organization parallels to visual cortex-tonotopic mapping like piano keys pitch perception theory • Place theory-works well for high frequency sounds • Frequency theory-works well for low frequency sounds hearing • Amusia (tone deafness)-fewer connections between auditory and frontal cortex • Perfect pitch-can hear a note and identify it, can be learned through musical instrument playing • Conductive/middle ear loss- bones in middle ear fail to transmit sound well; individuals with this can hear themselves clearly but have trouble hearing others, can be linked to psychological disorders • Nerve/inner ear loss-more damaging, damage to cochlea causes certain frequencies to not be perceived • Tinnitus- high pitched frequency sound heard continuously, similar to phantom limb syndrome, disorganization of synapses in the cortex • Damage-decibels logarithmic; 23% 18-44 year olds, 29% 45-64 year olds, 43% 65+ have hearing damage sound localization • Sound shadow-best explains high frequency • Time of arrival-slight discrepancy in time between each ear receiving sound • Phase difference-sound waves, best explains low frequency Mechanical Senses vestibular sensation • allows us to maintain balance, position, movement o semi-circular canals o otoliths-particles of calcium carbonate-activate hair cells in basilar membrane somatosensa tion • skin is largest organ of the body • merkel disks- sense fine/gentle touch; women more sensitive than men because generally have a smaller surface area but same number of disks • meissner’s corpuscles- sense pressure on the skin • pacinian corpuscles-deep within the skin & joints, sense pressure and vibration • dermatome • αβ myelinated axons- transmits info from dermatome, located in spinal cord (sensory route is dorsal) • ventral posterior(VP) nucleus of the thalamus • primary somatosensory cortex-parietal lobe Sensory Systems Book Outline {Sound} § sound waves-periodic compressions of air, water, or other media; vary in amplitude (intensity) and frequency (# of compressions per second measured in hertz) o humans hear sounds from 15/20Hz-20,000Hz; children can hear higher frequencies than adults § pitch-related aspect of perception § timbre-tone quality or tone complexity o people communicate emotion by changes in pitch, loudness, and timbre; conveying info by tone of voice is prosody {Ear Structures} § outer ear: pinna-cartilage attached to each side of head, alters reflections of sound waves to locate source of sound, sound then travels to auditor canal § middle ear: tympanic membrane (ear drum)-vibrates the hammer, anvil, and stirrup which connect to the oval window § inner ear: oval window-membrane of the inner ear; cochlea-contains 3 fluid filled tunnels (scala vestibuli, scala media, scala tympani), auditory receptor hair cells respond to displacements of the fluid in the cochlea caused by vibrations from the stirrup to the oval window {Perception of Pitch} § place theory-basilar membrane like strings of piano and each section tuned to a specific frequency, each frequency activates hair cells only at specific place on basilar membrane and neurons respond based on which hair cells activated § frequency theory-basilar membrane vibrates in synchrony with a sound causing auditory nerve axons to produce action potentials at same frequency § current theory-modification of both theories § volley principle of pitch & discrimination-auditory nerve produces volleys of impulses for sounds up to 4,000 per second even though no individual axon approaches that frequency § amusia (“tone deafness”)-4% of people have it, do not detect minor changes in sound {Auditory Cortex} § primary auditory cortex (A1)-in superior temporal cortex o the “what”-sensitive to patterns of sound in the anterior temporal cortex o the “where”-sensitive to sound location in posterior temporal cortex and parietal cortex § development of auditory system depends on experience § damage to A1 does not produce deafness; cortex not necessary for hearing, just for processing the info; those with damage have trouble with speech and music but can hear simple sounds {Sound Localization} § time of arrival-sound coming directly from the side reaches closer ear faster, useful for sounds with a sudden onset § sound shadow-difference in intensity between the ears, head makes sound louder for closer ear § phase difference-useful for localizing sounds up to 1500 Hz, sound wave will strike each ear out of phase, best for low frequencies {Pain Relief} § opioid mechanisms-systems that respond to opiate drugs and similar chemicals to halt pain; opiates bind to receptors in spinal cord and periaqueductal gray area of midbrain to act on nervous system not injured tissue § gate theory-attempts to explain why some people withstand pain better than others- spinal cord neurons that receive messages from pain receptors also receive input from touch recpeptors and from axons descending from the brain; these other inputs close the gates for pain messages by releasing endorphins § placebo-drug with no pharmacological effect, those who receive placebos often times say they have/feel the effect they are suppose to have from the real drug


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