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by: Ashlee Wilson

Microbioloy Biol 1230

Ashlee Wilson
University of Memphis
GPA 3.3

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chapter 4 notes
King-Thom Chung
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashlee Wilson on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1230 at University of Memphis taught by King-Thom Chung in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Microbiology in Biology at University of Memphis.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
Micro Chapter 4 Characteristics of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Cellular Characteristics  Prokaryotes- DNA is I a nuclear region not surrounded by a membrane.  Eukaryotes- DNA is in a nucleus surrounded by a membrous nuclear envelope. Cell Wall  Peptidoglycan- provides strong flexible support to keep bacteria from bursting or collapsing.  Teichoic acid in gram positive.  Outer membrane in gram negative: endotoxin  Perplasmic space Gram-Positive Cell Wall  Consists of a thick homogenous sheath of peptidoglycan 20-80 nm thick.  Bound very tight, acidic polysaccharides, including teichoic acid and lipoteichoic acid  Also a cell membrane.  Retains crystal violet and stain purple. Gram-Negative Cell Wall  Consists of an outer membrane containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS)  Thin shell of peptidoglycan  Periplasmic space and inner membrane  Lose crystal violet and stain red from safranin counterstain. Cell-Wall Deficient or Unique Cell-Wall Bacteria  Cell-wall Deficient- mycoplasma have no cell wall.  Other genera of bacteria may normally have a cell wall but can certainly lose their ability to form walls.  If peptidoglycan is digested ram-negative bacteria become spheroplasts.  Unique Cell Wall Bacteria- Archaea  May entirely lack cell walls, while other have unusual walls of polysaccharides or of proteins but lack peptiglycan, Internal Cell Structures  Cytoplasm  Ribosomes  Nuclear region Cell structures- attachment  Pili  Fimbriae Cell Structure- Glycocalyx  Capsule  Slime Layer Eukaryotic Cells  Plasma membrane  Cytoplasm  Nucleus Plasma Membrane  Similar fluid-mosaic structure.  Contain sterols-add rigidity.  Lower surface-to-volume ratio.  Do not have respiratory enzymes that capture metabolic energy and tore it in ATP. Internal Structure  Cytoplasm  Cell nucleus  Mitochondria and chloroplasts  Ribosomes  Endoplasmic Reticulum  Golgi Apparatus  Lysomes  Peroxisomes  Vacuoles  Cytoskeleton Cytoplasm  Semifluid sunstance  Elements of cytoskeletons Eukaryotic Organelles  Chloroplasts Eukaryotic Organelles- Ribosomes  Ribosomes---for protein synthesis, polysomes.  6-% RNA and 40% Protein  80S (60S + 40S)  Attached to endoplasmic reticulum: make proteins for secretion from the cell  Or free in cytoplasm---making protein for use in the cell. Endoplasmic Reticulum  Rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER)– originates from the outer membrane of the nuclear envelop & extends in a continuous network through cytoplasm; rough due to ribosomes, proteins are synthesized & shunted into the ER for packaging & transport. First step in secretory pathway.  Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (SER)– closed tubular network without ribosomes, functions in nutrient processing, synthesis & storage of lipids, etc. Golgi Apparatus  Consists of a stack of flattened sacs called cisternae.  Closely associated with ER.  Condensing vesicles transport proteins to organelles or secretory proteins to the outside. Cell Walls  No peptidodogoycan.  Rigid & provide structure and shape.  Fungi- have thicker inner layer or=f polysaccharide fibers composed of cellulose and thin layer of mixed glycans.  Algae- varies in chemical composition; commonly found: cellulose, pectin, mannans, silicon dioxide, & calcium carbonate.  Protozoans- have flexible external coverings called pellicles! Facilitated Diffusion  This is diffusion with the assistance of special pores or carrier molecules.  NO energy required!! Osmosis  Is movement through water.


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