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I-O Psych Week 7 Notes

by: Freddi Marsillo

I-O Psych Week 7 Notes PSYC 2544

Freddi Marsillo
GPA 3.55

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About this Document

Notes from week 7 of class
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Blacksmith, N
Class Notes
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
25 ?




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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
I-O Psych Week 7 Notes 22/02/2016 21:46:00  Reliability – key word: consistency, whereas validity is concerned with accuracy  Reliability  Consistency or stability of a measure  Provides validity evidence of internal structure  Types of Reliability  Test-retest reliability o Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 o Test is studying a fixed construct; what is being studied does not change between Time 1 and Time 2 o Studies a stable component – does not change over time  Equivalent forms of reliability o Calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test o Different questions, but measuring the same thing o Scores are then compared  Internal consistency (most common form of reliability) o Assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct  Inter-rater reliability o Can calculate various statistical indices to show level of agreement among raters  Values in the range of .70 to .80 represent reasonable reliability  Individual Differences and Assessment  Having employees with difference and diverse aspects of themselves is important  Individual differences comes into play when we think about management; it is important for managers to understand their employees  Fundamental Assumptions in Applying Individual Differences Model  Adults have a variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time  People differ with respect to those attributes  Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training  Different jobs require different attributes  These attributes can be measured (KSAOs)  Varieties of Individual Differences  Cognitive ability and the g-ocentric model  Personality  Emotion  Interests  Knowledge  Physical ability  Individual Differences and Behavior in Organizations  Individual Difference Domains  Cognitive ability  Personality  Orientation (values, interests)  Affective disposition   Behavior in Organizations and its Outcomes  Advancing the goals of the organization o Performance, effectiveness  The organizational experience o Climate and culture o Interpersonal relations and conflict o Identification with the organization  General Mental Ability  (cognitive ability) A basis for all actions – it matters for every single job  Definitional Issues in Intelligence  Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another. We will make some distinctions:  IQ is a historical term that stands for “intelligence quotient”; term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists  Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably. Refers to general intellectual capacity (often called “g” for GMA)  Cognitive ability and mental ability are comprised of specific abilities such as memory or reasoning  Cognitive Abilities  g  Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience  Is g important at work?yes  Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience  Higher job complexity = higher predictive value  Carroll’s Hierarchical Model  A meta-analysis   Procedures for Assessing Abilities  Cognitive ability tests  Allow individuals to demonstrate what they know, perceive, remember, understand, or can work mentally  Tests that produce a single score o Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT)  Tests of specific abilities o Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension  Comprehension Sample Item  Sample item from Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test  Personality & Integrity Tests  The Five Factor Model (FFM) (The Big Five)  Factor: 1) Conscientiousness  Characteristics: responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented  Factor: 2) Extraversion  Characteristics: sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic  Factor: 3) Agreeableness  Characteristics: good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly  Factor: 4) Emotional stability  Characteristics: secure, calm, poised, relaxed  Factor: 5) Openness to experience  Characteristics: curious, imaginative, independent, creative  The Big Five is valuable in research, but not the best in practice (when hiring, company should design test specific to the job)  Personality  Screen-out tesidentify psychopathology  Generally used for positions of public trust  May only be administered after offer of employment  Best-known example is the MMPI  Screen-in tests identify normal personality  May be administered as pre-employment tests  Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI  Integrity Testing  Overt Integrity Test  Ask questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.)  Personality Based Integrity Test  Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, social responsibility)  Examples of Overt and Covert Integrity Test Items  22/02/2016 21:46:00  22/02/2016 21:46:00 


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