I-O Psych Week 7 Notes
I-O Psych Week 7 Notes PSYC 2544
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Freddi Marsillo on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 2544 at George Washington University taught by Blacksmith, N in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 72 views. For similar materials see Industrial/Organizational Psychology in Psychlogy at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
I-O Psych Week 7 Notes 22/02/2016 21:46:00 Reliability – key word: consistency, whereas validity is concerned with accuracy Reliability Consistency or stability of a measure Provides validity evidence of internal structure Types of Reliability Test-retest reliability o Calculated by correlating measurements taken at Time 1 with measurements taken at Time 2 o Test is studying a fixed construct; what is being studied does not change between Time 1 and Time 2 o Studies a stable component – does not change over time Equivalent forms of reliability o Calculated by correlating measurements from a sample of individuals who complete 2 different forms of the same test o Different questions, but measuring the same thing o Scores are then compared Internal consistency (most common form of reliability) o Assesses how consistently items of a test measure a single construct Inter-rater reliability o Can calculate various statistical indices to show level of agreement among raters Values in the range of .70 to .80 represent reasonable reliability Individual Differences and Assessment Having employees with difference and diverse aspects of themselves is important Individual differences comes into play when we think about management; it is important for managers to understand their employees Fundamental Assumptions in Applying Individual Differences Model Adults have a variety of attributes that are relatively stable over a period of time People differ with respect to those attributes Relative differences among people on these attributes remain even after training Different jobs require different attributes These attributes can be measured (KSAOs) Varieties of Individual Differences Cognitive ability and the g-ocentric model Personality Emotion Interests Knowledge Physical ability Individual Differences and Behavior in Organizations Individual Difference Domains Cognitive ability Personality Orientation (values, interests) Affective disposition Behavior in Organizations and its Outcomes Advancing the goals of the organization o Performance, effectiveness The organizational experience o Climate and culture o Interpersonal relations and conflict o Identification with the organization General Mental Ability (cognitive ability) A basis for all actions – it matters for every single job Definitional Issues in Intelligence Many people consider the terms intelligence, IQ, cognitive ability, and mental ability to be synonyms for one another. We will make some distinctions: IQ is a historical term that stands for “intelligence quotient”; term is popular with laypersons but is generally not used by scientists Mental ability and cognitive ability are current terms that scientists often use interchangeably. Refers to general intellectual capacity (often called “g” for GMA) Cognitive ability and mental ability are comprised of specific abilities such as memory or reasoning Cognitive Abilities g Involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, and learn from experience Is g important at work?yes Intelligence (or “g”): broad general capability – describes person’s ability to learn from experience Higher job complexity = higher predictive value Carroll’s Hierarchical Model A meta-analysis Procedures for Assessing Abilities Cognitive ability tests Allow individuals to demonstrate what they know, perceive, remember, understand, or can work mentally Tests that produce a single score o Wonderlic Personnel Test (WPT) Tests of specific abilities o Bennett Test of Mechanical Comprehension Comprehension Sample Item Sample item from Bennett Mechanical Comprehension Test Personality & Integrity Tests The Five Factor Model (FFM) (The Big Five) Factor: 1) Conscientiousness Characteristics: responsible, prudent, persistent, planful, achievement oriented Factor: 2) Extraversion Characteristics: sociable, assertive, talkative, ambitious, energetic Factor: 3) Agreeableness Characteristics: good-natured, cooperative, trusting, likable, friendly Factor: 4) Emotional stability Characteristics: secure, calm, poised, relaxed Factor: 5) Openness to experience Characteristics: curious, imaginative, independent, creative The Big Five is valuable in research, but not the best in practice (when hiring, company should design test specific to the job) Personality Screen-out tesidentify psychopathology Generally used for positions of public trust May only be administered after offer of employment Best-known example is the MMPI Screen-in tests identify normal personality May be administered as pre-employment tests Examples include HPI, NEO-PI, PCI Integrity Testing Overt Integrity Test Ask questions directly about past honesty behavior (stealing, etc.) as well as attitudes toward various behaviors (employee theft, etc.) Personality Based Integrity Test Test that infers honesty and integrity from questions dealing with broad personality constructs (conscientiousness, reliability, social responsibility) Examples of Overt and Covert Integrity Test Items 22/02/2016 21:46:00 22/02/2016 21:46:00
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