test run anth 021
Popular in cultural anthropology
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
Anthropology 21: Introduction to Cultural Anthropology
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by isabel stewart on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to anth 021 at University of Vermont taught by Mares in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see cultural anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Vermont.
Reviews for test run
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 02/24/16
ANTHROPOLOGY: Chapter 1: Key terms Anthropology- origin anthropos= human beings, logia= study of. The study of human nature, human society, and the human past Holistic- trying to fit together all tha is known about human beings Comparative- compare the similarities and differences amongst different societies. Evolutionary- how humans got to where they are today. Biological anthropology- looks at the biological aspect of humans Primatologist- biological anthropologists who study nonhuman primates Paleoanthropologist- study our earliest ancestors in the forms of bones. Forensic anthropologists – study the human body. Aid law enforcement in identifying body. Medical anthropology– overlapping of biological and cultural anthropology. Ie, how people contract diseases, and how they react to it. Cultural anthropology- how variations in beliefs, and behaviors of members of different human groupps is shaped by culture. Culture- sets of learned behaviors and ideas that human beings acquire as members of society. Fieldwork- taking their experience and living long term with a specific group of people and observing them as complex creatures. Informants- people who the anthropologists work with. But has negative connotation due to the name and association with work with the police which is given the same name. Participant-observation Monograph- book written about a single culture or way of life Ethnography- basically same as above but with more than just 1 culture Ethnology- comparative study of 2 or more ways of life. Anthropological linguistics- study of human languages. Linguistic anthropology- same as above Language- the most strikng aspect of human culture for a lot of people. It’s the system of arbitrary vocal sounds strung together to explain our experiences and the things around us. Archaeology – cultural anthropology of human past, has to do with the study of earlier materials of human culture from the past Prehistory- the history before written time Applied anthropology- using methods an studies from every field of anthropolgy Development anthropology- goal of this study is to maintain peoples health, increase food growth, and adapt to situations in the modern world. Objective knowledge- undistorted, universally valid knowledge about the world Positivism- when anthropologists applied their knowledge and scientific methods about stone tools, religion etc. to produce what was called a science of man. Modernism- western cultural ideology Postmodernism- the criticism that followed the modernism movement. And led to a lot of questions of boundaries and categories that modernists had set as objectively true. Reflexive- anthropologists carefully scrutinize both their own contribution to fieldwork interactions and the responses these interactions elicited from informants. Multisited fieldwork- ethnographers will follow people or objects, or cultural processes that are not contained by social, national, ethnic, or religious boundaries. CHAPTER 2 Culture: learned sets of ideas and behaviors that are acquired by people as members of society. Race: people used to thnk that they were distinct, biological subpopulations. Around turn of 20 century, the distinction between ifferent social groups was attributed heavily to race. - franz Boas(1858-1942) was responsible for the shift that diverse beliefs and practices that were distinguishable through different groups of humans was due to differences in social learning, not racial biology. Socialization: learning to live as a member of a group Enculturation: people come to terms with the ways of thinking and feeling that are considered appropriate in the group. Cultural universals: used to demonstrate the equality of abilities amongst all humans. - bronislaw Malinowski(1884-1942) argued that all humans everywhere faced the same problems of survival/experience the same basic human needs. Symbols: when something stands for something else. X symbolizes Y. it is an integral part of human culture and no other species depends on symbols as much as humans do. Ethnocentrism: using practices of your own people as a yardstick to measure how well the customs of other, different peoples measure up. Usually it ends up being with “what they lack” Cultural relativism: when you live in a community whose culture is vastly different from your own and you gain perspective on how they view the world. The anthropologists were supposed to interpret specific beliefs and practices in the context of the culture to which they belonged. Cultural hybridization: the mixing and reconfiguring of elements from different cultural traditions. Indigenization: cultural features that may have originated in the west or in America but have been adopted by local people for local purposes. CLASS WEEK 5: making meaning: worldview, religion and art Colonialism, nationalism and globalization Example: colonialism: chulyan Russian nationalism: globalization: theres no true gift: always expecting something in return. Worldview: encompassing picture of reality based on a set of shared assumptions about how the world works. Influences on world view: family values, religion, childhood, personal experiences, media. We tend to hang out with people that we have similar world views on. Socioeconomic status. Race, ethnicity etc. How do people express their worldviews: how you behave and interact in social situations. Your reaction when something either on microscopic or macroscopic moment. Manners Traveling is a way to broaden our worldview and question what we know. Religion is a really important influence in our worldview. We study it as an entry point into studying varying worldviews. What is the function of religion: Provides a moral code, a script. A set of expectations Gives people an ease of mind. Social cohesion (provides a means of unification of a large group of people) Explains the unexplainable Control Religion versus magic Religion: ideas and practices that postulate reality beyond that which is immediately available to the senses Magic: ritual practices that do not have technically or scientifically apparent effects but are believed by actors to have an influence on the outcome on practical matters. attempt to intervene to change how your world is working. Religion= distinctively human thing. Myths: stories that recount how various aspects of the world came to be the way they are don’t have to be religious tend to be shared orally. Doctrine: direct and formalized statements about religious beliefs. is written, but can and does change associated with state-level religions. Beliefs and supernaturals: concepts of otherworldly beings and impersonal forces - animism - zoomorphic supernaturals - anthropomorphic supernaturals - pantheons - ancestors beliefs about sacred spaces: - natural sites such as mountains, streams and stone outcroppings. Culturally contructed sites that make a natural place sacred. Animism beliefs see souls and spirits imbued in natural things. Rituals; - life cycle rituals: separation, transition, reintegration - pilgrimage: example: the Hajj to mecca for muslims - rituals of inversion: example: carnival in Bosa, sardegna(Sardinia) - sacrifice: example: guinnea pig sacrifice key concepts in studying world religions: - religious pluralism: one or more religions xoexist either as complementary to each other or as competing systems - religious conversion: individuals or groups in question will adopt entirely new worldview, frequently a religious system - religious syncretism: hip hop video example: two girls who wear hijabs doing hip hop. They met in Sunday school, and are now Muslim. they see many overlaps between hip hop and Islamic culture she doesn’t believe that they are entertainers. This is how she practices her devotion. And took to heart and overwhelmed by the fact that they were being considered entertainers. so many blessings and so many good things that’ll happen to you when you give.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'