Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture notes
Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture notes BISC 132
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture Notes December 16, 2015 Fungi (Ch 32) Fungus traits unicellular or multicellular multicellular fungi have hyphae: single or branched tubes with multiple nuclei and a connected cytoplasm incomplete division of the cytoplasm by cross walls called septa considered one cell cytoplasm and its contents flow freely and this allows for fast growth mycelium: mass of hyphae grow on/through substrate multiple hyphae increase surface area for nutrient uptake secrete digestive enzymes cell walls of chitin cells can have multiple nuclei dikaryotic: two nuclei monokaryotic: one nucleus mitosis does not directly lead to cytokinesis sexual or asexual reproduction produce spores dispersed by wind very small, so suspended in air for a long time heterotrophs some fungi are carnivores, hunt small invertebrates most are detritivores 2 break down dead organic matter very thorough can break down cellulose Microsporidia unicellular, obligate intracellular parasites (cannot live on own) only grow/replicate inside of a host cell completely take it over smallest eukaryotic genome Blastocladiomycota haplodiplontic life cycle have both multicellular haploid (1n) and multicellular diploid (2n) stages of life Basidiomycota (look at pic of Basidiomycota 4 reference) unique reproductive structure called a basidium fungus produces haploid, monokaryotic mating spores that form primary mycelium fuse to form secondary mycelium, which is dikaryotic (not diploid) (2 nuclei; N + N) *karyogamy: fusing of 2 haploid nuclei into one diploid nucleus (N + N 2N) fungi play a key role in their ecosystems decompose dead organic matter many fungi participate in symbiotic relationships close long term relationships between 2 species parasitic, mutualistic, commensal symbiotic relationships (know difference between) obligate symbiosis: required for survival facultative symbiosis: not required for survival e.g. Lichens obligate mutualistic between fungus and a photosynthetic partner bacteria or plant fungus protects partner partner gives nutrients (photosynthesis products) to fungi 3 can be found in harsh artic conditions e.g. Mycorrhizae facultative, mutualistic between fungus and plant roots very common fungus aids in absorption of mineral nutrients from soil plant provides sugar to fungus fungus may grow around or through plant cells e.g. Fungi & Leaf cutter ants obligate, mutualistic ants cut and carry leaves to colony to feed to a fungus then, eat fungus domesticated fungus gardening human fungal pathogens candida albicans commensal, on skin can cause yeast infections oral thrush associated with lowered immune function e.g. AIDS plant fungal pathogens can damage food crops “rusts” & “smuts” are most common Plant Diversity (Ch 3031) humans have a diplontic life cycle only diploid stage is multicellular plants traits 4 plants have chlorophyll a and b different from bacterial chlorophyll have unique chloroplast structures different from protest have a cellulose cell wall all are photosynthetic autotrophs green plants=plants=Plantae (Kingdom) virtually all plants have a haplodiplontic life cycle multicellular haploid and diploid sporophytes: multicellular diploid gametophytes: multicellular haploids *either sporophyte or gametophyte may be prominent form of plant December 18, 2015 sporophyte (2n) produces haploid spores (unicellular) by meiosis spores divide by mitosis to form gametophyte (1n) gametophyte (1n) produces eggs/sperm by mitosis egg + sperm fuse to form zygote (2n) zygote divides to form sporophyte (2n) green algae includes chlorophytes and charophytes aquatic plants multicellular, some have unicellular forms in life cycle e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii swim using 2 flagella sexual or asexual reproduction not haplodiplontic 5 land plants plants that live on land includes all further groups bryophytes prominent gametophyte (1n) photosynthetic body lack tracheids (cells that transport water/nutrients) liver warts flattened gametophyte structures not leaves livershaped mosses leaflike structures (not leaves) have simple waterconducting tissue hornworts sporophyte & gametophyte are both photosynthetic tracheophytes have specialized vascular tissue (transports water, nutrients) allows for larger plants stems, roots, leaves includes all further groups lycophytes sporophyte (2n) is prominent includes club mosses which grow on forest floors pterophytes aka ferns life cycle: sporophyte & gametophyte are both photosynthetic can live independently 6 distinct male & female structures on gametophyte produce sperm or eggs, respectively sperm have flagella (*requires water for fertilization) seed plants have seeds embryos (sporophyte, 2n) after fertilization delay growth until conditions are good protect embryo and provide food include all further groups distinct multicellular male and female gametophytes male gametophyte: pollen job is to travel by wind *do not require water for fertilization female gametophyte does not travel gymnosperms naked seeds no flowers or fruit ovule (houses female gametophyte) is exposed rely completely on wind for fertilization conifers thick cuticle around leaves job is to reduce water loss ginkgophytes ginkgo biloba only living member 7 dioecious: distinct male & female sporophytes exist produce only male or female gametophytes female trees more rare foul odor living fossils resilient January 4, 2016 Angiosperms seed plants also have flowers and fruit flower: protects ovule and female gametophyte houses anthers contain pollen can use wind to pollinate but flower attracts pollinating animals fruit surrounds seed also nurtures growing plant can aid in dispersal Plant Form (Ch 36) Plant Meristems dividing cells in plants divide in two one daughter cell differentiates into new, nondividing cell type other daughter cell stays a meristem keeps a consistent number of meristem cells 8 most at sites of active growth root apical meristems at root protected by root cap shoot apical meristems at leaf/stem protected by leaf primordia lateral meristems grow outward, increase girth 3 types of tissue in plants 1.) dermal tissue outermost cells usually one cell layer thick protective coating covered in cuticle made of fats/waxes special cells of dermal tissue e.g. Guard cells: paired sausageshaped cells line stomata: pore/ mouthlike opening that serves as entrance/exit for O 2 CO ,2H O2 control opening of stomata to minimize water loss e.g. trichomes hairlike outgrowths, protect leaves in some species, secrete sticky or toxic substances to discourage being eaten e.g. root hairs increase surface area of root to optimize water uptake 2.) ground tissue: storage, photosynthesis, structural support makes up most of mass of plants 3 cell types 3.) vascular tissue: transports fluids and dissolved substances (e.g. ions, nitrates) 9 xylem: H 2 transportation tubes made of dead cells thin cylinders (tracheids) and thick cylinders (vessels) phloem: transports “food” (dissolved sugars) tubes made of living cells, connected to companion cells that keep them alive Roots absorb nutrients and water from soil 4 regions root cap: bottom; protects meristems zone of cell division: meristems zone of elongation: cells grow/elongate zone of maturation: top; cells differentiate into specific cell types *youngest cells are nearer to the bottom of the root cells in root cap are responsible for gravitropism detect gravity, grow “down” modified roots prop roots visible above ground brace plant against wind and water logging (too much water) aerial roots don’t touch ground wrap around another plant get H 2 from air pneumatophores in swampy soil, roots need O 2 10 spongy outgrowths of roots break surface of water, transport O do2 water storage roots store water plants in dry regions food storage roots store carbohydrates (sugars and starches) many species important to humans (carrots) buttress roots provide immense structural stability radiate out from trunk flowering plants are split into 2 major groups monocots: vascular bundles scattered throughout stem eudicots: vascular bundles are around outside of the stem Stems carry leaves, flowers support plant’s weight grow by shoot apical meristems January 6, 2016 modified stems bulbs & corns can be edible store nutrients allow stem to grow quickly stolons & runners horizontally running stems enable lateral spread of plant stolons are underground tubers (e.g. potatoes) 11 store carbohydrates unlike bulbs, corns or modified roots, can sprout & grow into a new plant tendrils twine around support structures allow plants to grow higher with less energy use Leaves photosynthetic organs increase surface area for sunlight capture veins in leaves monocots: parallel veins eudicots: branching veins modified leaves spines on desert plants reduced surface area (less efficient photosynthesis) very thick cuticle prevents water loss & defense against herbivores insectivorous leaves in swampy soil, regions with low nitrogen soil supplement nutrition from soil with nitrogen from amino acids in insects e.g. Venus flytrap trap & digest insects trigger hairs cause leaves to snap shut e.g. Pitcher plants lure insects in with scent 12 drown insects, digest fluid at bottom of pitcher Plant Development and Reproduction (Ch 41) plant fertilization pollen (male gametophyte) produces sperm 2 sperm travel down pollen tube to reach egg and polar nuclei double fertilization e.g. egg + sperm= zygote (1n + 1n = 2n) polar nuclei x2 + sperm = endosperm (1n + 1n + 1n= 3n) embryo development first division of zygote is asymmetrical small cell: divides repeatedly, forms ball—will be plant large cell: divides to form elongated structure called suspensor will transport nutrients to embryo formation of rootshoot axis embryo cells near suspensor will be roots, cells at far end will be shoot (steam & leaves) embryo develops first leaves (cotyledons) cells of endosperm divide, envelop embryo provide nutrition to growing plant endosperm varies from species to species some plants use up almost all endosperm during development Seeds advantages: dormancy: do not germinate until conditions are favorable metabolic activity shut down inside seed H 2 & O 2eeded for germination some will remain dormant until more specific conditions are met germinate after passing through digestive tract of an animal 13 aids in dispersal e.g. Jack pines high temp leads to seed release then germination protection: young plant is vulnerable endosperm provides nutrients to help germination monocots vs. eudicots monocots: one cotyledon eudicots: two cotyledons Fruit angiosperms only ovary of plant develops into fruit pericarp is part of ovary has 3 layers: endocarp: inner layer mesocarp: middle layer exocarp: outer layer sometimes, pericarp is thin layer sometimes, ovary develops around undeveloped/unfertilized seeds e.g. bananas 6 major types of fruit 1.) True berries (e.g. tomatoes): multiple seeds in one or more ovaries 2.) legumes: dry, thin pericarp (shell) that houses multiple seeds 3.) drupes (e.g. peaches, plums, apricots): one seed, thick pericarp—different layers have different functions endocarp: pit around seed mesocarp: fruit flesh exocarp: skin 14 4.) samaras: thin, dry pericarp around a single seed 5.) aggregate fruits: multiple ovaries from one flower each w/ 1 seed in pericarp 6.) multiple fruits (e.g. pineapple): multiple flowers house multiple ovaries, each with seed—fuse together during development January 8, 2016 fruits aid in dispersal ingestion by animals sugars in pericarp encourage consumption but hopefully, not damage seed physically sticking to fur/hair blown by air float on water germination: emergence of first root (radicle) from seed occurs when metabolism resumes requires H 2 & O 2 radicle, then cotyledon(s) radicle: gravitropism cotyledons: phototropism grow toward light source Additional Plant Topics (Ch 3840) phytoremediation: use of plants to concentrate or break down pollutants take up pollutants through roots phytoaccumulation: plants store pollutant (sunflowers) used to concentrate heavy metals in plant bodies plants then disposed of/contained phytodegradation: plants break down pollutant (TCE) used for complex pollutant molecules that can be broken down to harmless molecules however, sometimes results in phytovolatization: plant releases pollutant into air limitation/drawback: animals in area can eat plants with accumulated pollutants 15 secondary metabolites: organic compounds not involved in normal growth or development optional, might help in certain situations or sideproducts or intermediates in normal metabolic pathways nicotine harmful to tobacco hornworm addictive, carcinogenic stimulant in humans pacific yew taxol anticancer drug use of compound in plant not known quinine from Cinchona tree antimalarial compound morphine from opium poppy painkiller derivatives still used in medicine today addictive narcotic ricin from Castor beans weaponized potent toxin—binds to ribosomes, prevents translation
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