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Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture notes

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by: randomchic12

Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture notes BISC 132

Marketplace > Louisiana Tech University > Biology > BISC 132 > Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture notes
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About this Document

covers majority of material on exam 2 such as Fungi (CH 32) & Plant Diversity (CH 30-31)
The Diversity of Life
Dr. Kyle Kemege
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by randomchic12 on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BISC 132 at Louisiana Tech University taught by Dr. Kyle Kemege in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see The Diversity of Life in Biology at Louisiana Tech University.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
1 Bisc 132 Exam 2 Lecture Notes December 16, 2015 Fungi (Ch 32) ­Fungus traits ­unicellular or multicellular ­multicellular fungi have hyphae: single or branched tubes with multiple nuclei and a  connected cytoplasm ­incomplete division of the cytoplasm by cross walls called septa ­considered one cell ­cytoplasm and its contents flow freely and this allows for fast growth ­mycelium: mass of hyphae ­grow on/through substrate ­multiple hyphae increase surface area for nutrient uptake ­secrete digestive enzymes ­cell walls of chitin ­cells can have multiple nuclei ­dikaryotic: two nuclei ­monokaryotic: one nucleus ­mitosis does not directly lead to cytokinesis ­sexual or asexual reproduction ­produce spores ­dispersed by wind ­very small, so suspended in air for a long time ­heterotrophs  ­some fungi are carnivores, hunt small invertebrates ­most are detritivores 2 ­break down dead organic matter ­very thorough­ can break down cellulose ­Microsporidia ­unicellular, obligate intracellular parasites (cannot live on own) ­only grow/replicate inside of a host cell ­completely take it over ­smallest eukaryotic genome ­Blastocladiomycota ­haplodiplontic life cycle ­have both multicellular haploid (1n) and multicellular diploid (2n) stages of life ­Basidiomycota (look at pic of Basidiomycota 4 reference) ­unique reproductive structure called a basidium ­fungus produces haploid, monokaryotic mating spores that form primary mycelium ­fuse to form secondary mycelium, which is dikaryotic (not diploid) (2 nuclei; N + N) *karyogamy: fusing of 2 haploid nuclei into one diploid nucleus (N + N  2N) ­fungi play a key role in their ecosystems­ decompose dead organic matter ­many fungi participate in symbiotic relationships ­close long term relationships between 2 species ­parasitic, mutualistic, commensal symbiotic relationships (know difference between) ­obligate symbiosis: required for survival ­facultative symbiosis: not required for survival ­e.g. Lichens ­obligate mutualistic ­between fungus and a photosynthetic partner ­bacteria or plant ­fungus protects partner ­partner gives nutrients (photosynthesis products) to fungi 3 ­can be found in harsh artic conditions ­e.g. Mycorrhizae ­facultative, mutualistic ­between fungus and plant roots ­very common ­fungus aids in absorption of mineral nutrients from soil ­plant provides sugar to fungus ­fungus may grow around or through plant cells ­e.g. Fungi & Leaf cutter ants ­obligate, mutualistic ­ants cut and carry leaves to colony to feed to a fungus ­then, eat fungus domesticated fungus gardening ­human fungal pathogens ­candida albicans ­commensal, on skin ­can cause yeast infections ­oral thrush ­associated with lowered immune function ­e.g. AIDS ­plant fungal pathogens ­can damage food crops ­ “rusts” & “smuts” are most common Plant Diversity (Ch 30­31) ­humans have a diplontic life cycle ­only diploid stage is multicellular ­plants traits 4 ­plants have chlorophyll a and b ­different from bacterial chlorophyll ­have unique chloroplast structures ­different from protest ­have a cellulose cell wall ­all are photosynthetic ­autotrophs ­green plants=plants=Plantae (Kingdom) ­virtually all plants have a haplodiplontic life cycle ­multicellular haploid and diploid ­sporophytes: multicellular diploid ­gametophytes: multicellular haploids *either sporophyte or gametophyte may be prominent form of plant December 18, 2015 ­sporophyte (2n) produces haploid spores (unicellular) by meiosis ­spores divide by mitosis to form gametophyte (1n) ­gametophyte (1n) produces eggs/sperm by mitosis ­egg + sperm fuse to form zygote (2n) ­zygote divides to form sporophyte (2n) ­green algae ­includes chlorophytes and charophytes  ­aquatic plants ­multicellular, some have unicellular forms in life cycle ­e.g. Chlamydomonas reinhardtii  ­swim using 2 flagella  ­sexual or asexual reproduction ­not haplodiplontic 5 ­land plants ­plants that live on land ­includes all further groups ­bryophytes ­prominent gametophyte (1n)  ­photosynthetic body ­lack tracheids (cells that transport water/nutrients) ­liver warts ­flattened gametophyte structures­ not leaves ­liver­shaped ­mosses ­leaf­like structures (not leaves) ­have simple water­conducting tissue ­hornworts ­sporophyte & gametophyte are both photosynthetic ­tracheophytes ­have specialized vascular tissue (transports water, nutrients) ­allows for larger plants ­stems, roots, leaves ­includes all further groups ­lycophytes ­sporophyte (2n) is prominent ­includes club mosses which grow on forest floors ­pterophytes aka ferns ­life cycle: ­sporophyte & gametophyte are both photosynthetic­ can live  independently  6 ­distinct male & female structures on gametophyte­ produce sperm or eggs, respectively ­sperm have flagella (*requires water for fertilization) ­seed plants ­have seeds ­embryos (sporophyte, 2n) after fertilization ­delay growth until conditions are good ­protect embryo and provide food ­include all further groups ­distinct multicellular male and female gametophytes ­male gametophyte: pollen ­job is to travel by wind *do not require water for fertilization ­female gametophyte ­does not travel ­gymnosperms ­naked seeds ­no flowers or fruit ­ovule (houses female gametophyte) is exposed ­rely completely on wind for fertilization ­conifers ­thick cuticle around leaves ­job is to reduce water loss ­ginkgophytes ­ginkgo biloba­ only living member 7 ­dioecious: distinct male & female sporophytes exist­ produce only male or female gametophytes ­female trees more rare­ foul odor ­living fossils ­resilient January 4, 2016 ­Angiosperms ­seed plants ­also have flowers and fruit ­flower:  ­protects ovule and female gametophyte ­houses anthers ­contain pollen ­can use wind to pollinate but flower attracts pollinating  animals ­fruit ­surrounds seed ­also nurtures growing plant ­can aid in dispersal Plant Form (Ch 36) ­Plant Meristems ­dividing cells in plants ­divide in two ­one daughter cell differentiates into new, non­dividing cell type ­other daughter cell stays a meristem ­keeps a consistent number of meristem cells 8 ­most at sites of active growth ­root apical meristems at root ­protected by root cap ­shoot apical meristems at leaf/stem ­protected by leaf primordia ­lateral meristems  ­grow outward, increase girth ­3 types of tissue in plants 1.) dermal tissue ­outermost cells ­usually one cell layer thick ­protective coating ­covered in cuticle made of fats/waxes ­special cells of dermal tissue ­e.g. Guard cells: paired sausage­shaped cells ­line stomata: pore/ mouth­like opening that serves as entrance/exit for O 2 CO ,2H O2 ­control opening of stomata to minimize water loss ­e.g. trichomes ­hair­like outgrowths, protect leaves ­in some species, secrete sticky or toxic substances to discourage  being eaten ­e.g. root hairs ­increase surface area of root to optimize water uptake 2.) ground tissue: storage, photosynthesis, structural support ­makes up most of mass of plants ­3 cell types 3.) vascular tissue: transports fluids and dissolved substances (e.g. ions, nitrates) 9 ­xylem: H 2 transportation ­tubes made of dead cells ­thin cylinders (tracheids) and thick cylinders (vessels) ­phloem: transports “food” (dissolved sugars) ­tubes made of living cells, connected to companion cells that keep them  alive ­Roots ­absorb nutrients and water from soil ­4 regions ­root cap: bottom; protects meristems ­zone of cell division: meristems ­zone of elongation: cells grow/elongate ­zone of maturation: top; cells differentiate into specific cell types *youngest cells are nearer to the bottom of the root ­cells in root cap are responsible for gravitropism ­detect gravity, grow “down” ­modified roots ­prop roots ­visible above ground ­brace plant against wind and water logging (too much water) ­aerial roots ­don’t touch ground ­wrap around another plant ­get H 2 from air ­pneumatophores ­in swampy soil, roots need O 2 10 ­spongy outgrowths of roots break surface of water, transport O do2  ­water storage roots ­store water ­plants in dry regions ­food storage roots ­store carbohydrates (sugars and starches) ­many species important to humans (carrots)  ­buttress roots ­provide immense structural stability ­radiate out from trunk ­flowering plants are split into 2 major groups ­monocots: vascular bundles scattered throughout stem ­eudicots: vascular bundles are around outside of the stem ­Stems ­carry leaves, flowers­ support plant’s weight ­grow by shoot apical meristems January 6, 2016 ­modified stems ­bulbs & corns ­can be edible ­store nutrients ­allow stem to grow quickly ­stolons & runners ­horizontally running stems ­enable lateral spread of plant ­stolons are underground ­tubers (e.g. potatoes) 11 ­store carbohydrates ­unlike bulbs, corns or modified roots, can sprout & grow into a new plant ­tendrils ­twine around support structures ­allow plants to grow higher with less energy use ­Leaves ­photosynthetic organs ­increase surface area for sunlight capture ­veins in leaves ­monocots: parallel veins ­eudicots: branching veins ­modified leaves ­spines  ­on desert plants ­reduced surface area (less efficient photosynthesis) ­very thick cuticle ­prevents water loss & defense against herbivores ­insectivorous leaves ­in swampy soil, regions with low nitrogen soil ­supplement nutrition from soil with nitrogen from amino acids in insects ­e.g. Venus flytrap ­trap & digest insects ­trigger hairs cause leaves to snap shut ­e.g. Pitcher plants ­lure insects in with scent 12 ­drown insects, digest fluid at bottom of pitcher Plant Development and Reproduction (Ch 41) ­plant fertilization ­pollen (male gametophyte) produces sperm ­2 sperm travel down pollen tube to reach egg and polar nuclei ­double fertilization ­e.g. egg + sperm= zygote (1n + 1n = 2n) ­polar nuclei x2 + sperm = endosperm (1n + 1n + 1n= 3n) ­embryo development ­first division of zygote is asymmetrical  ­small cell: divides repeatedly, forms ball—will be plant ­large cell: divides to form elongated structure called suspensor ­will transport nutrients to embryo ­formation of root­shoot axis ­embryo cells near suspensor will be roots, cells at far end will be shoot (steam &  leaves) ­embryo develops first leaves (cotyledons) ­cells of endosperm divide, envelop embryo ­provide nutrition to growing plant ­endosperm varies from species to species ­some plants use up almost all endosperm during development ­Seeds ­advantages: ­dormancy: do not germinate until conditions are favorable ­metabolic activity shut down inside seed ­H 2 & O  2eeded for germination ­some will remain dormant until more specific conditions are met ­germinate after passing through digestive tract of an animal 13 ­aids in dispersal ­e.g. Jack pines ­high temp leads to seed release then germination ­protection: young plant is vulnerable ­endosperm provides nutrients to help germination ­monocots vs. eudicots ­monocots: one cotyledon ­eudicots: two cotyledons ­Fruit ­angiosperms only ­ovary of plant develops into fruit ­pericarp is part of ovary ­has 3 layers: ­endocarp: inner layer ­mesocarp: middle layer ­exocarp: outer layer ­sometimes, pericarp is thin layer ­sometimes, ovary develops around undeveloped/unfertilized seeds ­e.g. bananas  ­6 major types of fruit ­1.) True berries (e.g. tomatoes): multiple seeds in one or more ovaries ­2.) legumes: dry, thin pericarp (shell) that houses multiple seeds ­3.) drupes (e.g. peaches, plums, apricots): one seed, thick pericarp—different  layers have different functions ­endocarp: pit around seed ­mesocarp: fruit flesh ­exocarp: skin 14 ­4.) samaras: thin, dry pericarp around a single seed ­5.) aggregate fruits: multiple ovaries from one flower each w/ 1 seed in pericarp ­6.) multiple fruits (e.g. pineapple): multiple flowers house multiple ovaries, each  with seed—fuse together during development January 8, 2016 ­fruits aid in dispersal ­ingestion by animals ­sugars in pericarp encourage consumption but hopefully, not damage seed ­physically sticking to fur/hair ­blown by air ­float on water ­germination: emergence of first root (radicle) from seed ­occurs when metabolism resumes ­requires H 2 & O 2 ­radicle, then cotyledon(s) ­radicle: gravitropism ­cotyledons: phototropism­ grow toward light source Additional Plant Topics (Ch 38­40) ­phytoremediation: use of plants to concentrate or break down pollutants ­take up pollutants through roots ­phytoaccumulation: plants store pollutant (sunflowers) ­used to concentrate heavy metals in plant bodies ­plants then disposed of/contained ­phytodegradation: plants break down pollutant (TCE) ­used for complex pollutant molecules that can be broken down to harmless  molecules ­however, sometimes results in phytovolatization: plant releases pollutant into air ­limitation/drawback: animals in area can eat plants with accumulated pollutants 15 ­secondary metabolites: organic compounds not involved in normal growth or development ­optional, might help in certain situations or  ­side­products or intermediates in normal metabolic pathways ­nicotine ­harmful to tobacco hornworm ­addictive, carcinogenic stimulant in humans ­pacific yew­ taxol ­anti­cancer drug ­use of compound in plant not known ­quinine­ from Cinchona tree ­anti­malarial compound ­morphine­ from opium poppy ­painkiller­ derivatives still used in medicine today ­addictive narcotic ­ricin­ from Castor beans ­weaponized ­potent toxin—binds to ribosomes, prevents translation


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