SOC 174 Notes
SOC 174 Notes Soc 174
Popular in Socialization and Personality
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayla Sheldon on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Soc 174 at University of California Riverside taught by Dr. Quintella in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Socialization and Personality in Sociology at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
SOC 174 01/07/2016 ▯ Personality, identity = nurture or nature? ▯ Nature: genetic/biological Predisposed to act certain ways. ▯ Nurture: social environment Interaction experiences ▯ Importance of “nurture” YouTube ▯ Anna, Isabelle, Genie ▯ Isolated to various degrees, with different attention afterward ▯ Isabelle isolated with her mother (deaf & mute) – she developed better than others because she still had some type of interaction with her mom. We need interaction with others in order to develop normally. ▯ ▯ Socialization = combo In order to activate biological factors, we must have interaction. o Ex-we have biological make-up to learn/use language: vocal cords, brain size. We must acquire it in interaction Genie & Anna did not have this with anyone. Isabelle did – learned hand gesture with her mother. ▯ Reality Socialization depends on meaningful interactions with others. Symbolic interactionism: we interact through symbols. o Learning is achieved through interactions using symbols o Our everyday interactions then constitute the basis of our existence. Social construction: reality exists because we participate and contribute to it. ▯ Individual + Society Social forms of expression (cultural knowledge gained through socialization) + individual perception = reactions to the world in the situation (personality) ▯ ▯ ▯ Social psychology: scientific study of how our thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by other people ▯ Socialization: happens through meaningful interactions with other people Through symbols o We get symbols from society in which we live. ▯ Sociocultural Perspective Social Norms o Rules and expectations for appropriate social behavior Culture o Beliefs, customs habit practiced in our society. Focuses upon large social groups o Norms within cultural groups o Social class differences o Nationality/ethnicity o Pop culture/fads ▯ Social cognitive perspective What we pay attention to How we interpret and judge social situations What we retrieve from memory (about ourselves and from other people) ▯ *Different situations prime different parts of the person inside each one of us, there are different motives, memories and feelings. Each of these is likely to be triggered by some situations more than others. ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ ▯ Reality Depends on.. Your set of assumptions about knowledge and how it may be validly obtained. ▯ Epistemology answers: how or what? What do you know and how do you know it. Philosophical position, way of seeing the world, knowing something exists. ▯ Is based on ontology: theory of existence Answers the question: what is? Is there a reality external to us or do we, as social actors, make the reality? ▯ Features of Reality Reflexive: the cause and the effect affect one another o Incorrigible propositions: belief that cannot be proved wrong no matter what happens to dispute it. o Object constancy: objects remain same, you change view: “I must have been mistaken” Reality is a coherent body of knowledge: things we know make up our reality. o But not necessarily part of our awareness Reality is interactional: we define it with other people. o Stable patterns of interaction: constitute social structure Realities are fragile: o Require coordination and shared understanding o With disruption, structure becomes visible Realities are permeable: can be altered and another one assumed. ▯ Symbolic Interactionism: 1. Reality is produced/reproduced through ongoing human activity. 2. Society is an ongoing process of negotiation among social actors. Building Blocks of interaction with others: o Symbols o Interaction o Meaning ▯ ▯ Symbolic Interactionism Theory People construct their own world through shared symbols and common understandings. Society is the sum of interactions of individuals and groups ▯ 5 Central Tenants of Si focus on the nature of social interactions o social activities among persons humans define their situation as they act human interaction is also within the individual (own thinking processes) we are not controlled by what happened in the past; our actions are caused by what happens in the present situation. o More importantly, how we define what is happening. Humans unlike other animals are able to take a part in the cause of their own action. ▯ Language: symbols of interaction Provides names for our interactions. Provides cues about how to feel and respond. Culture shapes our language, but language also shapes our thinking. ▯ The Naming Process We learn to shape our reactions to an event o We learn from others. o Get cues from others about how to behave We then name the feeling or behavior Process of: translating thought into language into social interaction ▯ Through rules Rituals: commonplace elements interaction we don’t really notice o Expressions of respect for one another’s constructed self (acknowledgment rituals) Goffman: Guru of rituals Social life is dramaturgical Socially situated self, negotiated self ▯ Socialization: Becoming Human ▯ ▯ Overview- Socialization: is how we learn to become a member of social world. Occurs primarily through interaction with others. Lifelong process o *computer analogy Software - cultural beliefs/social rules Installation program - socialization ▯ Why is socialization important? Micro: we learn ways of thinking, talking, and acting from others o Way we develop our self concept. Meso/Macro – members of society are socialized to support the existing social structure o Ways we pass culture on to the next generation Types of Socializations Primary-reflection of self, learning cultural attitudes/expectations o Way we become part of society Secondary: become part of group o What are some groups you’ve had to “learn” about before or while becoming a part of them? Anticipatory- learning skills for future roles o What are some ways you’ve experienced anticipatory socialization? Gender Socialization – learning acceptable behaviors *Media plays a strong role in how we view each other and ourselves. o ▯ ▯ Racial Socialization – messages & practices about one’s group. Article “Black armor” – black males dress “professionally” to avoid negative attention & pretty much safe from “getting shot”. ▯ ▯ Socialization (cont.): Emotions ▯ ▯ “Feeling Norms” ---socially constructed Can feelings be taught? Can feelings be labeled? ▯ Feelings – an innate response to things that happen to us. ▯ Feeling norms: norms that prescribe intensity, duration and target of emotions. ▯ ~consider a situation where your feelings seemed “inappropriate” – recall the conversation you had with yourself about the experience. How or what made your feelings inappropriate? o Who are you comparing yourself to? ▯ Recall a situation where you were confused about what you were feeling. Who did you talk to and why? How did they define the situation with or for you? ▯ How is learning feeling norms anticipatory socialization? ▯ How is learning feeling norms gender socialization? ▯ *Can learning feeling norms be racial socialization? Lowering expressions of aggression so you can lower chances of drawing attention. (thinking you’ll be racially profiled.) o “The Angry Black Woman” – feeling norms applied to racial minority groups. ▯ Emotional Labor When we take our private feelings and structure them whatever the societal norm or expectation is. Commonly at work. Jobs that require emotional regulation: o Social worker, teacher, waiter, customer relations, etc. How do learning to control your emotions lead to “emotional capital”? Emotional capital is a skill ▯ How does emotional labor affect “authentic emotional engagement?” ▯ ▯ Reference Groups Real or imaginary groups that are used as our filter for thoughts and actions “Generalized other” or the “great ‘they’ in the sky” shadows and shapes our perspectives and definitions of situations. o WWJD? ▯ ▯ Review Part of existing in society is learning what is appropriate behavior The learning process begins with “naming” in interaction with other people. We then learn to think about ourselves in terms if the names from others. ▯ Cooley: Looking glass self Self-reflected appraisals o We imagine how we appear to someone. o Then we imagine how that person judges us. o Attach feelings to that imagined judgment *using that person as a mirror for ourselves. (WHAT WE THINK THEY’RE REFLECTING BACK TO US) How do we know whether people’s reactions to us are accurate or not? *what you think people are thinking of you are NOT CORRELATED with people’s actual perceptions of you. o Dove experiment *youaremorebeautifulthanyouthinnk exp. Scar Face: o People fitted with a fake facial scar were told they are to be interviewed to see how their scar influences the way they are treated. o Before interview, they removed the scar without them knowing. After interview, participants said the interviewer behaved negatively because of their “deformity”. “We don’t see the world as it is, we see the world as we are.” – Cooley’s concept. ▯ Mead: Seeing ourselves as objects I: Our impulses, our raw selves, reacts to the “me” Me: Overseer, the one who controls, or gives an ideal image, generalized other. Social experience makes this conversation possible. ▯ Reference Groups: Groups we associate with &/or who are important to us Can be real or imaginary Can operate oppositional as well: groups which we focus being against or the opposite form ▯ We “manage our impression” (Goffman) All of these aspect of the self then play out in interaction with others. We seek to participate in the view others have of us. o “I don’t want you to think that I’m rude but…” o “I’m not racist but..” o “That’s not me that’s not how I really am..” ▯ We “front” to define situation for ourselves and others. Act in a certain manner ▯ “Stage” the self by building expectations upholding social interactions based upon knowledge of that self. ▯ We use fronts, others use “sign vehicles” and together we create: modus viveni A single overall definition of the situation Not to what exists, but whose claims will be temporarily honored. o Example: (when you don’t say I don’t wanna see you again, you let them be “temp honored” – until they don’t get a text from you) ▯ ▯ Technology & the Self What does the self look like when intersected with technology? When we look in the mirror, we’re actually seeing a mirror image of ourselves-an inverse image. Photos actually shoes us what we really look like o We’re seeing flipped features o “Selfies” are fronts and attempts at staging ▯ Networking and the Self 1969: node-to-node communication one computer to another 1991: Tim Berners-Lee introduced World-wide web 1992: first search engine (Mosaic, later became Netscape) o allowed uses to see words and pictures on the same page for the first time and to navigate using scrollbars and clickable links. o Social media: websites/apps that enable users to create and share content or to participate in social networking. Facebook est. 2004, expanded 2005, 2008 over 100 million users. Now in billions ▯ Technology and basic interactions What do basic interactions look like through the online medium? ▯ The Digital Self Zhao (2005): chat rooms, blogs, and online games o How has social media changed her theory that the self is narrative in nature and retractable? How can we imagine how we appear to someone of we’ve never met them? o We don’t know. o Likes our pictures? Who becomes our “generalized other”? o Moves from small community to global one. ▯ ▯ Multiple Selves? Decentered, dispersed, and multiplied continuous instability.” 159 More divided? “we go online to look for what we want to find” 169 o Insulated self Surround ourselves with ppl that have the same views as us. More reflective: we come to our own conclusions instead of in interactions with others. ▯ ▯ ▯ Creating the Social Order: Intersections through interactions o You: Self: self reflected appraisals, generalized other, social location, role Your epistemology: about reality social location and roles + o Others: their self image and epistemology. + Interaction (presentation of self, interaction work, emotional labor, schemas, frames) = universe as an “ordered whole” –Plato Schemas o Specific social identities and roles associated with events and places. o Based on (Garfinkel): Congruency of relevances (based on expectations) Interchangeability of standpoints (we know another’s role) Expectancy that knowledge of relationship is a commonly entertained notion. “what everyone knows” (based on epistemology and beliefs) Static: Embarrassment o Break down of projected identity and role attached to that identity. Wrong role or misplaying the accepted role for the situation Poise (control) or confidence (in interactions) o Break down of the working consensus There are SIGNS there has been a breakdown Unsure of next step in continual negotiations o We seek to AVOID embarrassment (and people that embarrass us) o ▯ Gender Riddle What do the findings from our interviews tell us about gender? o Age? o Sex? ▯ Gender is socially constructed Meaning is created in interaction through o Cultural rules (provide category system of roles) Roles become nested within our understanding of people as men or women o Women not being capable of being surgeons Gender categorization unconsciously shapes people’s assumptions of capabilities and competencies ▯ From where do ideas of what men and women can and cannot do come? Socialization? o According to our ontologies, Incorrigible propositions: faith in the “facts” of the world * ON EXAM ▯ ▯ INSIDE OUT: Traces the development of self and interactions with others for 10 year-old Riley. Emotions are Riley’s unconscious (even though they appear conscious) reactions to things/events that then structure her responses. o View of her backstage behavior. (EMOTIONS ARE INTERACTING WITH ONE ANOTHER) These emotions as if they are conscious. Most of our emotions are unconscious Which emotion did Riley feel most? Which do you? o We see situations in which emotional responses to an event are “named” o You can tell when a kid is an “unhappy kid” o As she gets older, emotional responses pop up. o Some where she was a little but confused about how to act. Which feeling will be in charge at that moment? Have you ever felt pressure from OTHERS to show one emotion over the one you were really feeling? Or did the pressure come from yourself? ▯ NAMING: Coaxing vs. Coaching Naming: understanding what something is called, new vocabulary. Can be done in two ways: o Parents and significant others can coax the emotion (trying to pull joy out of an otherwise upsetting circumstance) o When her mom says, “can you be my happy girl?” – that’s her mom trying to coax or pull that emotion out. o Parents and significant others can coach it. (honor the emotion and talk about it) – it’s explored. Places child/person at the center. Beginning and middle of the film Riley was being more coaxed. o End of the film: coached. o When she had a breakdown, she wasn’t happy and her parents said well we can make memories here and she felt better. Connecting, validating and recognizing that this emotion existed. ▯ Which approach seemed to work better? Coach ▯ She had this pressure to be this happy person she normally was. She went to extreme lengths to feel this emotion again. EMOTIONS AND PERSONALITY Is it possible are current moods can color your past memories? Is it possible that our past memories of our moods and emotions can affect how we define our personality? ▯ Constructing Race ▯ ▯ Micro level interactions speak from structural level aspects of society Dominant world view usually saturates and controls the culture but does not really know much about the subordinate groups Subordinates know all there us to know about the dominant group and also know the stereotypes that exist about them from the dominant group. How are these messages transmitted? Can be as small as the language we speak in daily interactions. (Moore) Reference groups structure the way that racial identity is made (Perry) Through stereotypes, which have very real consequences in people’s lives. Endemic racism in society structures self identity (DuBois). ▯ Reference Groups (Perry) Why do you think white students in predominantly white high schools see themselves as cultureless? Why do you think white students in ethnically diverse school had more nuanced view of race? ▯ Building Blocks of the Self How we view ourselves How others view us Both involve aspects interaction o Who we think we are + what is reflected back to us=match, then identity not conscious o When aspects of identity are set apart as “other” or exceptional, then our identity is salient/conscious ▯ Cognitive Prejudice An exaggerated belief (Asians are smart) associates with a group and tendency to believe those who belong to a group who have characteristic Image is seen and label is attached to image Or….. A label is heard/seen and image is generated ▯ Stereotypes affect social judgments we make about others: They influence how much we like the person. They are reflected in the mood the person “puts” us in Affect our expectations regarding probability of certain behaviors in the person. ▯ Stereotypes Transmitted through language or interaction, have very real consequences in people’s lives (Steele) Has a strong power to make ones world insecure ▯ Stereotype threat People recognize stereotypes about their group and contend with the possibility of confirming the stereotypes. Differentiated ST from looking glass self o Both are based on assessment of how you are viewed by others o With ST: threat does not have to be “real” for it to affect behavior
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