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PSY 320 - Ch 16 - Performance Enhancing Drugs

by: Elliana

PSY 320 - Ch 16 - Performance Enhancing Drugs PSY 320

Marketplace > University of Miami > Psychlogy > PSY 320 > PSY 320 Ch 16 Performance Enhancing Drugs
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Combined lecture & textbook notes
Drugs & Behavior
Dr. Marc Gellman
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elliana on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 320 at University of Miami taught by Dr. Marc Gellman in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Drugs & Behavior in Psychlogy at University of Miami.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Chapter 16 Performance Enhancing Drugs History Ancient Times: • Early concoc▯ons ◦ I.E. Consuming horse hoof powder to make one run as fast • May not have provided any true physical performance enhancement • Could have placebo value for boos▯ng confidence • Ancient Greek Olympians & Aztec athletes used plant-based s▯mulants ◦ Herbs, mushrooms, cactus-based strychnine s▯mulants S▯mulants some of the earliest used drugs • Beginning in 1800s ◦ Coca wine used by French cycling team • Athletes later used pure cocaine ◦ Caffeine in coffee • Or straight up caffeine tablets ◦ Amphetamines in 1930s • Use of "pep pills" by pro soccer players, boxers, & cyclists • 1960 Cyclist died from use during race in Rome ▪ Combina▯on of amphetamines & sun stroke Strychnine • Famous as a rat poison • Low doses = CNS s▯mulant • High doses = Convulsions & death • Use reported in boxers, possibly to make them more aggressive & reduce fa▯gue • 1904 St. Louis Olympic marathon winner ◦ Mixed brandy & strychnine ◦ Collapsed & had to be revived a▯er race Interna▯onal Drug Tes▯ng • 1960s some sports began tes▯ng athletes deun▯noc sme l bo◦r P ◦ 1968 Interna▯onal Olympic Commi▯ee established rules to disqualify athletes who used banned drugs or refused tes▯ng • American Football ◦ 1960s many players used amphetamines during games ◦ 1971 NFL banned distribu▯on of amphetamines by team physicians/trainers • Many players sued their teams for having them play under the influence ◦ Players could s▯ll obtain drug on their own ◦ Current NFL policy restricts all use of amphetamines & many other drugs Steroids • Established medical use for weight gain in malnourished ppl ◦ WW2 used for malnourished ppl ◦ Soviet Union used testosterone on a wide scale for Olympic athletes • Soviets began to use testosterone to build up athletes in 1950s • Many US athletes used steroids in 1960s 1 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Weight lifers, body builders ◦ Track & field athletes • Tes▯ng began in 1970s ◦ Athletes began to be caught & banned Ba▯le Over Tes▯ng • Since 1980s reports of drug use among athletes increased • 1986 NCAA banned a list of over 3,000 brand-name drugs containing banned substances • Amateur & pro sports organiza▯ons adopted more strict tes▯ng guidelines & longer lists of banned substances • Use of performance enhancing substances con▯nues • Ongoing development of new drugs & strategies to help athletes avoid detec▯on BALCO Scandal • BALCO: Bay Area Laboratory Coopera▯ve • 2003 rumors of steroid use circulated around pro baseball players • Athletes found to be using tetrahydrogestrinone (THG) • Previously unknown anabolic steroid that didn’t show up on tests • Developed by US An▯-Doping Agency • Nicknamed "The Clear" • THG has high affinity for androgen & progesterone receptor • Highly potent agonist • BALCO founder Victor Conte implicated • June 2003: evidence surfaced on THG use in athletes Products & Effects S▯mulants • Effec▯veness: ◦ Studies indicate most athletes show SMALL improvement on amphetamines ◦ Small improvements can make big differences in endurance sports ◦ Underlying mechanism unclear • Increased physical ability (strength, masking of fa▯gue) • Effects on the brain (increased confidence, winning a▯tude) ◦ At legal levels, caffeine may provide slight improvement for endurance sports • Increases endurance • Amateur marathon runners might consume coca cola or espresso for an edge Cocaine • No experiments carried out on performance-enhancing abili▯es • 1980s many athletes believed it improved performance • Similar to amphetamine proper▯es ◦ Shorter dura▯on of ac▯on ◦ Brief effects ◦ Doesn't improve endurance over long periods • Cocaine & amphetamine use run risk of addic▯on Ephedrine • On Olympic & NCAA lists of banned substances • Pro sports organiza▯ons slower to ban it ◦ Major league baseball: 2003 pitcher Steve Bechler died due to ephedrine-related heat stroke (Ft. Lauderdale) ◦ 2004 FDA banned ephedra & ephedrine in dietary supplements 2 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior Steroids • Physical effects of natural testosterone • Androgenic effects (masculinizing) ◦ Growth of penis & other male sex glands (shrinks testes) ◦ Deepening of the voice ◦ Increased facial hair (men & women) • Anabolic effects (▯ssue building) ◦ Increased muscle mass • Muscles repair faster, allowing athletes to return to heavy workouts sooner ◦ Control of distribu▯on of body fat ◦ Increased protein synthesis ◦ Increased calcium in bones • Synthe▯c Anabolic Steroids ◦ Drug companies synthesized types of steroids • Fewer androgenic effects • More anabolic effects • Not en▯rely free of androgenic effects • Effec▯veness: ◦ Mixed/controversial research findings • Testosterone builds muscle mass & strength during puberty • Animal studies: synthe▯c anabolic steroids build muscle in castrated animals • Unclear if giving extra anabolic steroids to adolescent/adult males w. normal levels has significant effect • Lab research on healthy men: ▪ Steroids can produce small increases in lean muscle mass & some▯mes muscular streength ▪ No evidence for overall increase in aerobic capacity • Research findings may not match word-of-mouth • Limita▯ons: ◦ Difficult to extrapolate lab findings to athletes • Athletes may use much higher doses • Athletes may use combina▯ons (stacking) ◦ Psychological effects may affect results • Users report feeling stronger, li▯ing more, working out harder • Possible placebo effect ◦ Double-blind experiments almost impossible • Very easy to detect which par▯cipants are on steroids • Psychological effects: ◦ Produce s▯mulant-like high & increased aggressiveness • May allow more work done during training & increased intensity of effort during compe▯▯on ◦ Risks/High Doses: • Psychological dependence ▪ Mood swings, depression when not taking drugs deun▯noc s i d nehw no i s s e r p▪e D • Interference w. social rela▯onships & other life areas • "Roid Rage:" 3 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ▪ Violent feelings & ac▯ons among steroid users • Adverse Effects: ◦ Young users: Premature closure of the growth plates of long bones, stun▯ng growth ◦ Men: Atrophy of testes, breast enlargement, baldness ◦ Women: Decreased breast size, enlargement of clitoris, increased facial hair, deepening of voice ◦ All users: Peliosis hepa▯▯s (bloody liver cysts), changes in blood lipid levels contribu▯ng to athersclerosis, high blood pressure, heart disease, acne • Regula▯on: ◦ Large black market ◦ Concerns about use among adolescent boys & non-athletes ◦ Anabolic steroids listed on Schedule II • Limited prescrip▯on refills • More record-keeping Addi▯onal Hormonal Manipula▯ons • Some men consume female sex hormones to compete in women's sports ◦ 1964 Olympics women's gold medal sprinter returned medal when discovered he's a man who took hormones • Hormone receptor-blocking drugs used to delay pubery in female gymnasts ◦ Smaller gymnasts have athle▯c advantage Human Growth Hormone • Pituitary hormone that can poten▯ally increase height/weight of an individual to gigan▯c propor▯ons • Rare instances of excessive body produc▯on of hormone produces "giants" over 7 ▯ tall ◦ Condi▯on usually results in early death (organs don't stop growing) • Administra▯on of doses of HGH & related hormones may produce more controlled increase in body size • Experiments have not shown that it increases muscle protein synthesis or strength ◦ Increases lean body mass • Illegal to distribute HGH for nonmedical purposes Beta-2 Agonists • Selec▯ve s▯mula▯on of beta-2 subtype of adrenergic receptors ◦ Used in asthma medica▯ons & inhalers • Sympathomime▯c effects on bronchi of lungs ◦ Improves breathing in athletes • Animal studies show possible effect on muscle mass • No evidence for improved athle▯c performance ◦ Some increase in strength, but not athle▯c performance • Banned for use in compe▯▯on ◦ Rules apply to asthma▯c athletes Crea▯ne • Natural substance found in meat & fish, sold legally as dietary supplement • Ac▯ons/Effects: ◦ Helps regenerate ATP, provides energy for muscle contrac▯ons ◦ Users tend to gain weight, some of which water weight • Crea▯ne may improve strength & short term sprin▯ng speed • No evidence for improvement in endurance events 4 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Performance may decrease due to weight gain ◦ Appears rela▯vely safe, not much known about long-term or high dose use Other Nutri▯onal Supplements • Ergogenic Aids ◦ Ergogenic = energy-producing ◦ Supplements unlikely to be of value in an athlete *receiving proper nutri▯on: ◦ Amino acids ◦ Carbohydrates • Loading prior to long-distance events may enhance performance ◦ Fats ◦ Vitamins ◦ Minerals • Iron supplements may be helpful for iron-deficient athletes *female athletes ◦ Electrolyte drinks • May be useful in marathons & ultra-endurance events ◦ Sodium bicarbonate • Evidence mixed for "buffering" blood pH w. baking soda for anaerobic events like sprint races r et aW • Most important substance for all sports • Needed during exercise to prevent dehydra▯on & improve performance Harms Ge▯ng "Cut" • Weight challenges in sports ◦ Wrestlers & jockeys need to make specific weight cuts ◦ Athletes may engage in extreme methods to achieve short-term weight loss/ "Make weight" • Purging • Diure▯cs • Swea▯ng/detoxing (exercising in heat or while wearing nonporous clothing) ◦ Many bodybuilders take "fat burning" supplements of ques▯onable safety & effec▯veness Treatmen t Avoiding Banned Substances: Tips for Athletes • Know the list of substances banned for your sport • Make certain other involved ppl know the list • Know what medica▯ons you're using • At compe▯▯ons, drink only out of sealed containers; don't leave containers una▯ended a▯er openin • Never leave urine samples for tes▯ng una▯ended un▯l sealed in an official shipping container • Inform administrators of any irregulari▯es in the tes▯ng process • If you plan to dispute a posi▯ve result: arrange to witness w. another qualified evaluator the "B" sample test News • Lance Armstrong ◦ Former professional road racing cyclist 5 PSY 320 Drugs & Behavior ◦ Disqualified for doping ◦ Consumed drugs when not being tested or drugs undetectable by tests : s gu ◦r D • EPO/Erythropoie▯n ▪ Hormone naturally produced by kidneys no▯cudo r p l l e c doo l b de r s e t a l um ▯ S ▪ Increases amt of oxygen delivered to muscles & improves recovery/ endurance • Blood transfusions ▪ Similar effects to EPO ▪ Athletes store some blood when hemoglobin levels high, then reinfuse it right before an event ▪ Undetectable by current tests • Testosterone ▪ Naturally occurring hormone regula▯ng bone density, fat distribu▯on, muscle strength, red blood cell produc▯on, sex drive ▪ Abused by athletes to bulk up ▪ Side effects similar to doping, & increases body's red blood cell count • Cor▯sone ▪ Man-made drugs resembling cor▯sol hormone ▪ Different from anabolic steroids for strength • Alex Rodriguez ◦ Miami baseball player, went to pros ◦ Richest in baseball history ◦ Admi▯ed to using steroids & biogenesis scandal • Human Growth Hormone (HGH) ▪ Originally for medical purposes un▯l athletes abused it for increasing abili▯es • 1989 banned from use in sports ▪ Limited evidence shows it increases lean body mass ▪ May not improve strength 6


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