HY 101, Week 6 Notes
HY 101, Week 6 Notes HY 101
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caroline Crews on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HY 101 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Daniel Riches in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 107 views. For similar materials see Western Civ To 1648 in History at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
02/22/2016 ▯ WEEK 6 NOTES ▯ ▯ ▯ Imperial Rome ▯ ▯ Civil War Second Triumvirate o Mark Antony, ca. 81-30 BC Right hand man of Caesar, controlled the East after Caesar’s death o Octavian/Augustus, 63 BC-14 AD Adapted son of Caesar Stayed in Italy o Marcus Lepidus, d. 12 BC General, controlled the West o Won against the enemies of Caesar after his assignation o 31 BC, Antony defeated and fled; Octavian left in charge; Actium battle ▯ ▯ Augustus, r. 27 BC-14 AD First emperor Lots of challenges and opportunities Need for gigantic expenditures for army and government Roman Empire ready for control Augustus and Pax Romana Augustus reigned 27 BC- 14 AD o 27 BC, gave all of his power back to the Senate as a sign of good faith; it was a sham, he still had a ton of power 23 BC, became head of all armies 12 BC, pontifex maximus o Highest religious position o Created the Roman Imperial Cult; after an emperor dies they become a god Princeips o He was never called an emperor but he was the “First Citizen” He was rich enough to rule without the Senate’s help Pax Romana o Internal peace, Rome’s survival was never at risk during this time o Virgil (70-19 BC), and Horace (65-8 BC) Poets who believed that Rome was there for peace Conservative tendancies After death of Augustus, … o Conquering and integrations of territories o Extreme instability in imperial succession, but the stability of Rome in general was strong o Over time, republic faded away, the definition of the emperor increased and became clearer Flairon and Antonine Emperor, 69-192 AD Early Christianity Popular religious cults in the Empire o Isis (Egypt) Something similar to baptism and judgment after death o Mithras (Persia) Moral highs if you were to join Israel was conquered in 63 BC o Jewish lands become a spirirtual mecca Jesus Christ, c. 6 BC -30 AD o He came to usher in a final judgment o His expectations for people were to be charitable and humble Spreading the religion o St. Paul and St. Peter Paul travelled around to spread Christianity and built communities Paul was a Roman citizen and his letter to the communities that he set up became apart of the new testament The Spread of Christianity Connected with the Roman Empire and the Pax Romana Technology and travel; common language Conversion of the Empire Foreign threats Military Officers are becoming more corrupt Sponsored Emperors in exchange for grand promises Between 235-284 AD 20 different emperors, 17 of which were killed either in civil war or assassinated Diocletian, 284-305 AD Brutal Tetrarchy The empire is too big to be governed by one person in one place Unclear rules of succession o A root of a majority of the problems and fighting Tetrarchy o The rule of four o For administrative purposes, the split of the empire in half, East and West; would be governed by an Augustus, and a vice emperor, Caesar o The Caesar was the successor and would marry the daughter of the Augustus Revival of Roman religion o Clashing with the growing Christian culture o Christians refuse to give up there religion although they were peaceful Great Persecution, 303-313 AD o First systematic persecution ever o What Diocletian is known for In 305, he voluntarily retires to test the succession rules he put in place; they do not work and Rome falls into a civil war Constantine the Great, r. 306-337 AD Wins the civil war Grew up in Diocletian’s court Had a vision that promised him victory under the Cross Battle of Milvain Bridge, 312 AD o Won the battle even though he was greatly outnumbers, claimed it was because he put crosses on their shields Edict of Milan, 313 AD o Ended the persecution of the Christians o Gives priests legal equality o Massive building for the Church and gives tons of donations Wants to get all Christians on the same pages First to show favor for Christianity No a conversion of the empire, just more like an integration Foundation of Constantinople, 324 AD o Frist city to be defined as a Christian city o Become the capital of the Eastern Empire, now is Istanbul. Repression of the Pagans started after his death Important Figures in the Early Church St. Ambrose of Milan, 339-397 AD o Conflict with Emperor Theodosius I, 347-395 AD He massacred multiple villages He was the excommunicated from the church until he repented First real example of how the powerful the control of religion is/was St. Augustine of Hippo, 354-430 AD o Trained by Ambrose o Wrote a tone o From North Africa o Confessiones (Confessions) Autobiography of his spiritual conversion o De Ciritate Dio (The City of God) If we are so focused on the afterlife, then why are we here on Earth? 2 cities theory “Barbarians” and the Dissolution of the Empire in the West The barbarians were illiterate Cornelius Tacitus, c. 56- c.120 AD o Germania Book about the barbarians Noble savage writing was created in this book They were never integrated properly with the Roman culture Small groups living less-advanced lives St. Jerome, c. 347-420 AD o Vulgate Used in Europe for over 1,000 years Translation of the Bible from Greek to Latin
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