Popular in History of Architecture 3
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This 20 page Class Notes was uploaded by Casey Mehall on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH20113 at Kent State University taught by Tippey in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 97 views. For similar materials see History of Architecture 3 in Architecture at Kent State University.
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Date Created: 02/24/16
History of Architecture III 1/21/16 18511914 Industrialization of Architecture and the City The Problem of Style Divorce between architecture and engineering o Steel vs. masonry Superficial historicism o False copying of things of the past and a reluctance of living in the present Marshall Field Wholesale Store, Chicago, 18851887; H.H. Richardson o Bridge figure Altes museum, Berlin; Karl Friedrich o Rationalism Biblioteque Nationale, Paris, 185668; Henri Labrouste o 19 century ornament and style o Clear use of cast iron as structural element Industrial Revolution Gustave Dore, Over London by Rail, engraving, 1872 Shift of patronage o Used to work for very wealthy patrons o Now middle class patrons Design homes Businesses o Architects have many different employers at the same time The rise of social programs Hull House, Chicago o Residential facility for immigrants May not have profession jobs Center for education and preparing for jobs Invention of New Materials, Processes and Technologies Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1851, under construction Steel o Had to be manufactured by an individual that is pounding out the steel Needed to be mechanized William Le Baron Jenney, the steel frame of the Fair Store, Chicago, from Industrial Chicago, 1891 William Le Baron Jenney, Home Insurance Company Building, Chicago, 1883 o First steel skyscraper Reinforced Concrete o Concrete reinforced with steel o Excellent in compression and tension o Does not predict any form Elastic, can be any form Francois Hennebique, trabeated system for reinforced concrete, 1892 Auguste Perret, garage at 51 rue de Ponthieu, Paris, 1905 Albert Kahn, Ford Motor Company factory, Highland Park, Michigan, 1909 Frank Lloyd Wright, Unity Temple, Oak Park, Illinois, 19058, perspective drawing. Sepia ink and watercolor. Frank Lloyd Wright Archives, Taliesin West, Arizona Insert curtis 139 Image: Curtis, Modern Architecture Since 1900 Tony Garnier, Cité Industrielle, residential quarter, from Cité Industrielle, 1917 Tony Garnier, Cité Industrielle, railway station, from Cité Industrielle, 1917 Charles Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), sketch of Domino houses, 191415. Print heightened with color, 18 x 38.5 o Reinforced concrete Le Corbusier, Domino skeleton, 191415 from the Oeuvre complete, vol. 1, 19101929 o Steel and concrete technology Theoretical Catalysts: John Ruskin John Ruskin, 18191900 o Glorification of nature Evidence of God’s creation Natural word as a source of inspiration o Distrust of mechanization Quality of life is degraded because turning too much to machines o Handy craft Wood carving etc. o Valorization of medieval where everyone is a craftsman Important texts: o Seven Lamps of Architecture 1849 o The Stones of Venice (“The Nature of the Gothic”), 18511853 John Ruskin, Fondaco dei Turchi, 1853 Theoretical Catalysts: Gottfried Semper Gottfried Semper, 18031879 o Architecture must be in harmony with humans o Breaks down buildings into 4 major elements Hearth Roof Enclosure Substructure o New types get new forms th o Thoughts more toward 20 century than actual work Important texts: o The Four Elements of Architecture 1851 Gottfried Semper, Semperoper, Dresden, 18711878 o All about style Theoretical Catalysts Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum, Berlin, 18248 o Functional portico Le Corbusier, Parliament Building, Chandigarh, 195163, long view Erik Gunnar Asplund, Woodland Chapel, Cemetery of Edskede, Stockholm, 191820, plan Theoretical Catalysts: ViolletleDuc 181479 o Opposed to ornament o Disease; excess, mimicry , great amounts of knowledge without critically thinking, analysis of principles, fetishistic according to fashion style and time period o Truth to constructive processes and truth to the program Exploit structure for all qualities Don’t hide it If it’s a bank don’t make it look like a Greek temple, make it look like a bank o Unity and harmony Sacrificed project requirements in order to achieve unity in form Sacrificed unity of form to meet function requirements Need to satisfy both at the same time o Machine is age of process Important texts: o Discourses on Architecture 1863 EugèneEmannuel ViolletleDuc, Project for a Concert Hall in Iron, 1872 o “If we want to have an architecture of our own time, let us first provide that the architecture shall be ours, and not seek [anywhere] else than in the bosom of our own social state for its forms and arrangements. That our architects should be acquainted with the best examples of what has been done before us, and in analogous conditions, is highly desirable, provided they unite with this knowledge a good method and a critical spirit.” ViolletleDuc 1/26/2016 The Deutscher Werkbund Role of technology and mechanization o Technology trumps nature Becomes source of inspiration Four general tendencies in Germany at the turn of the century: o Kunstgewerbeschulen: arts and crafts schools, attention to handicrafts (sympathetic with, but not the same as, the Arts and Crafts movement) Sympathetic with arts and crafts movement but not one in the same o German Expressionism: authentic forms could only arise out of an individualistic expressive temperament Artists genius is supreme Nothing can be replicated, every product is unique o Functionalism: only the logical use of new materials would produce authentic forms (contrast with historicism—both equally inept in modernity) Function reigns supreme o Deutscher Werkbund: the architect should design the ‘type forms’ to be massproduced Most influential in an international sense Should be applied to one prototype object and technology mass produces, so it’s available for all Eternal prototype Hermann Muthesius (18611927) Primary driver of arts and crafts movement Closer link of artists and technology Unified German spirit o Modern ideas Artistic production Important texts: o Stilarchitektur und Baukunst (Stylearchitecture and Buildingart), 1902 o Das englische Haus (The English House), 1904 Peter Behrens (18681940) One of primary architects Into graphic design Arc Lamp 1907, HighIntensity Arc Lamp 1908 o Intended to be mass produced o Formalized by German national ideas Table Fan (1908), Table Fan with Stylized Guard (1908), WallMounted Fan with Flexible Motor Mounting (1908) o Objects of everyday use Round Electric Kettles (1909) AEG Turbine Fabrik (19081909) o A celebration of mechanized process o One long nave designed for industrial production The Pavilion o Element of the classical Powerhouse for turbine factory, seen from the northeast, 8 April 1913 Walter Gropius (18831969) Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Fagus Shoelast Factory (Faguswerk), Alfeld, 191112 Werkbund Pavilion o Glass used in a way makes building transparent Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Werkbund Pavilion, Cologne, 1914, front view showing glass stairs, Machine Hall and the Deutzer Gasmotoren Pavilion Werkbund Pavilion, rear view showing Machine Hall and Deutzer Gasmotoren Pavilion Bruno Taut (18801938) Geometric Bruno Taut, Steel Industry Pavilion, Leipzig, 1913 Bruno Taut, Glass Pavilion, Cologne, 1914 o Designed to celebrate new material in a way that it is like a relic Futurism: Abstract Form, Velocity and Mechanization Marinetti, Filippo Tomaso, ‘Le Futurisme’, Le Figaro, Paris, 20 February 1909 Futurist manifesto o Response to status quo, turn of the century sensibilities In your face Insulting To get the reader’s attention o No political affiliations initially o Very far from Nazi ideology Emphasis on Dynamism, Motion, Velocity, Contrast Every drawing/ model meant to look like it’s in motion Founded of Italian futurism o Cubist devices Very areas of object simultaneously Antonio Sant’ Elia, La Città Nuova, 19131914 Extolled New Virtues: Boldness, Energy, and Audacity o “We will sing of the stirring of great crowds –workers, pleasure seekers, rioters and the confused sea of colour and sound as revolution sweeps through a modern metropolis. We will sing of the midnight fervour of arsenals and shipyards blazing with electric moons; insatiable stations swallowing the smoking serpents of their trains; factories hung from the clouds by the twisted threads of their smoke; bridges flashing like knives in the sun, giant gymnasts that leap over the rivers; adventurous steamers that scent the horizon, deep chested locomotives that paw the ground with their wheels, like stallions harnessed with steel tubing; the easy flight of aircraft, their propellers beating the wind like banners with a sound like the applause of a mighty crowd.” Filippo Tomaso Marinetti Form that comes out of function Filippo Tomaso Marinetti, 1909 Marinetti’s Proclamation o Forms that communicate motion o Promote acceleration Various movements all at once Bertarelli, Milan Uberto Baccioni, Charge of the Lancers, 1915 Uberto Baccioni, Dynamism of a Soccer Player, 1915 Antonio Sant’Elia Architecture on paper o Glorify modern technology Twopoint perspective drawings The Messaggio o “The problem of modern architecture is not a problem of rearranging its lines; not a question of finding new mouldings, new architraves for doors and windows; nor of replacing columns, pilasters and corbels with caryatids, hornets, and frogs, etc. … but to raise the new built structure on a sane plane, gleaning every benefit of science and technology … establishing new forms, new lines, new reasons for existence solely out of the special conditions of modern living and its projection as aesthetic value in our sensibilities.” The Messagio 1/28/2016 The Advent of New Architectural Types New Technology Begets New Forms Major factors o Assemblyline Production Processes Meat packing industry 1860 Chicago Worker would be stationary and preform only one task Henry Ford Mechanized Conveyor System Explosion of New Architectural Materials o Plate Glast 1 produced in France for mirrors Near perfect optic quality When mechanized, cost came down significantly Assembly made drawn glass easier Float glass Better visual clarity The Great Chicago Fire, 1871 o Modern architecture had its birth o “the loop” o In any other city (besides new York) we wouldn’t see such advancements o Urban migration and exmigration Mass Production on Display The Department Store o Display and sell products of mass production o Window shopping opportunity Louis Sullivan, Carson Pirie Scott, Chicago, Illinois, 18991904 o Base shaft and top Base should be almost entirely transparent o Changes face of the city The Market Hall o Complete reinvisioning of what markets should be o Under one roof Became heart of the city Hubbel and Bennes, Westside Market, Cleveland, 1912 Mercado San Miguel, 1916, Alfonso Dubí y Diez The Exposition Pavilion o Displays nationalistic pride o Each pavilion become the identity Trachtenburg, Marvin and Hyman, Isabelle, Architecture from Prehistory to Postmodernism, 1986, p. 482. o “The fair buildings can deservedly be called iron ‘cathedrals’ because ultimately the exhibitions were an expression of faith, of a blind yet understandable belief that the Industry of Nations would in its accelerating progress solve the needs of mankind.” Marvin Trachtenburg Joseph Paxton, Crystal Palace, London, 1851 o One of the first places of exposition pavilions on a international level Daniel Burnham, The Columbian Expo, Chicago, Illinois, 1893 Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, PanamaCalifornia Exhibition, 1915 Flight to Suburbia Exmigration o Made possible by a new architectural type in response to cars The Transport Terminal o Brand new architectural type that expresses ides about the place Helsinki Railway Station, Eliel Saarinen, 19041914 Puerta de Atocha, Madrid, Alberto de Palacio, 1892 o Greenhouse today o Meeting place The Suburb Boom in the middle class o Refuge from urban life o Made possible because of the automobile Frederick Law Olmstead, The Garden Suburb, Riverside, 18681869 Transportation hub, Frederick Law Olmstead, The Garden Suburb, Riverside, 18681869 The Suburban House o Industrialization of Domestic Life o Maintaining land Mass produced invention for cutting grass o Designing single family homes for the middle class Designs pattern houses Frank Lloyd Wright, Project for “A Home in a Prairie Town,” published in Ladies’ Home Journal, 1901 Charles Edouard Jeanneret (Le Corbusier), sketch of Domino houses, 191415. Print heightened with color, 18 x 38.5 in (46 x 98 cm). Fondation Le Corbusier, Paris Le Corbusier, Domino skeleton, 191415 from the Oeuvre complete, vol. 1, 19101929 Cathedrals of Labor The Factory o Doesn’t exist prior to 19 century o Albert Kahn, Ford Motor Company factory, Highland Park, Michigan, 1909 o Peter Behrens, AEG Turbine Fabrik (19081909) o Walter Gropius and Adolf Meyer, Fagus Shoelast Factory (Faguswerk), Alfeld, 191112 o Frank Lloyd Wright, Larkin Building, Buffalo, 19021906 Cathedral to the modern idea of work The New Tower of Babel The Skyscraper th o Building type of the 19 century o Becomes an icon Elevator Elisha Graves Otis, The Invention of the Safety Brake, 1854 o “The Tall Office Building Artistically Considered” o “The architects of this land and generation are now brought face to face with something new under the sun—namely that evolution and integration of social conditions, that special grouping of them, that results in a demand for tall office buildings … Problem: How shall we impart to this sterile pile, this stark, staring exclamation of eternal strife, the graciousness of those higher forms of sensibility and culture that rest on the lower and fiercer passions? How shall we proclaim from the dizzy height of this strange, weird modern housetop, the peaceful evangel of sentiment, of beauty, the cult of a higher life? Louis Sullivan, 1896 Burnham and Root, Monadnock Building, Chicago, 1884 o Base 1520 ft thick o Death of a structure material Burnham and Root, Reliance Building, Chicago, 18941895 o Much more windows o Curtain wall system Wall is free of structure Much more visibility Holabird and Roche, Tacoma Building, Chicago, 18871888 Adler and Sullivan, Guaranty Building, Buffalo, 18941895 o Masonry on exterior o Does not use a curtain wall o Ornamentation Repetitive Inspired by natural forms o Preconditions for skyscrapers Need for offices Perfection of steel Migration toward the city that causes need for more space Below ground floor, ground floor, second floor, all the office floors, then the attic Second floor o Offices that are directly associated with the ground floor Attic is the crown for the building o Touches the sky nicely Never try to make it look smaller than it is Exaggerate the height o Rectangular windows o Arches Vertical expression 2/4/2016 Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” “Historicism” Defined o “Belief in the importance or value of historicity or of the past; spec. (in art and architecture) regard for or preoccupation with the styles or values of the past; a style or movement characterized by this. Frequently used pejoratively.” Oxford English Dictionary Difference between History and Historicism o “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” George Santayana o “Today I am accused of being a revolutionary. Yet I confess to having only one master – the past; and only one discipline –the study of the past.” Le Corbusier Historicism is the antithesis of modernity, while the study of history is an essential part of modernity. Tradition o “The action of transmitting or ‘handing down’, […], from one to another, or from generation to generation; transmission of statements, beliefs, rules, customs, or the like, esp. by word of mouth or by practice without writing.” Rationalism Avoiding the Pitfalls of Style and History Henri Labrouste, Bibliotèque Nationale, Paris, 18581868 Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Avoiding the Pitfalls of Style and History Image: Curtis, Modern Architecture Since 1900 Karl Friedrich Schinkel, Altes Museum, Berlin, 18248 The École des BeauxArts Charles Garnier, The Opera, Paris, 18611875 Richard Morris Hunt, Administration Building, World’s Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893 Art Nouveau Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Theoretical Catalysts o John Ruskin o Eugène Emmanuel ViolletleDuc Owen Jones, The Grammar of Ornament, 1856 Reconciliation of Nature and Industry Art Nouveau Image: Elwin Robison Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Materials Hector Guimard, Montemartre, Paris, 1900 Image: Elwin Robison Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Victor Horta Victor Horta, Hotel Tassel, Brussels, Belgium, 1893 Image: Bastin & Evrard, Brussels, Elwin Robison Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Victor Horta Victor Horta, Maison du Peuple, Brussels, Belgium, 1899 Victor Horta, Horta House and Studio, Brussels, Belgium Historicism, Rationalism, and “New Art” Henry Van de Velde, Monument Frederic de Merode, Brussels, Belgium Hector Guimard Modernisme Gaudí Sagrada Familia, drawing of the nativity façade, based on Rubio’s sketch, published 1906 Antoni Gaudí, La Sagrada Familia, Barcelona, Spain, 1882 o Fantasy representation of the apostles o Vegetal forms o Using stone Same things as art nouveau but with different materials Antoni Gaudí, Casa Batlló, Barcelona, Spain, 1877 o Apartment building o Looking at myth of St. George and the dragon o Applied to rational building, almost functionalist Antoni Gaudi, Casa Mila, Barcelona, Spain 1910 o (slide id?) o Coral reefs Antoni Gaudí, Parc Güell, Barcelona, Spain, 1914 o Mosaics Represent different images o Circumtine forms o Innovate with structures Inspired by organic structures and using mathematical structures o Rationalist because fusing natural form with engineering o Structural brick Parabola used as a structural form Domènech i Montaner (18491923) Academic Concepts like brick module and use to get lightweight structural wall Reflection of natural materials Connection to Gaudi o More Modern way Rationalist because of subtle ornamentation Parallel to work of Lou Sullivan in Chicago Domènech i Montaner, CaféRestaurant, Barcelona, Spain, 1888 o Part of world fair o Shields mass produced based in local folk lore or tradition o Uses modular materials (brick) designs spaces and surfaces according to module Domènech i Montaner,Palau de la Música, Barcelona, Spain, 1908 o Sense of ornamentation o Essential Catalan vault on ceiling o Flat roof o Glass dome The Vienna Secession Act of separating Rejection of historicism Not overtly inspired by natural forms Kolo Moser: poster for the 13th exhibition, 1902 Motto o To each time is art and art it is freedom Provide artist with total freedom of expression Joseph Maria Olbrich Joseph Maria Olbrich, Secession Exhibition, Vienna, 18978 o Vegetal form dome o White box selfcontained work of art Pure white wall Fluidity of space o Moveable panels o Minimal ornamentation Joseph Maria, Ernest Ludwig House, Darmstadt, 1901 o Using ornament in a rationalist way o Use of modern sculpture o Reinvernting in rationalist way o metals Josef Hoffman Vienna work 1903 o Concentrate on arts Josef Hoffman, Palais Stoclet, Brussels, 1905—1911 o Single family residence o Art is used as a setting for everyday life o Balanced asymmetry Otto Wagner Not part of Vienna succession Critical transitional figure o Lou Sullivan Distrusted any type of excess Older, sees Vienna succession as too ornament designed Otto Wagner, Karlsplatz Stadtbahn Station, Vienna, 1899 Otto Wagner, Post Office Savings Bank, Vienna, 1906 o Most famous o Expression of function as sculpture o Appreciation of engineering Uninterrupted space Very flexible space o Methods of joinery o Dots designed to look like rivets Façade was actually stone o Didn’t trust engineers Solved with readymade solutions o Structure as beginning of architecture o Design of air ducts Not hiding but expressing it The Problem of Ornament Definition of Ornament o “Something used to adorn, beautify, or embellish, or that naturally does this; a decoration, embellishment.” Oxford English Dictionary Adolf Loos Same generation of Frank Lloyd Wright Mentor Not effected by ideas of art nouveau Not against all forms of ornament o Against use of ornament in modern times Irrelevant Adolf Loos, Kärntner Bar, Vienna, 1907 o Some ornament Stripped down o Materials become much more evident Adolf Loos, Steiner House, Vienna, 1910 o Broken symmetry o Reduce physical scale of thee building o Room plan Diagonal view where moves upward vertically Adolf Loos, Goldman and Salatsch Store , Vienna, 1910 2/9/2016 The Regional and the Universal Theoretical catalysts o AWN Pugent o Ruskin Nature o William Morris Nature Mechanization Tools of everyday life Handycraft Arts and Crafts Does not trust mass production o Inherent differences between each item The reconciliation between things that are relevant worldwide and those that are unique to local tradition Search for national identity What is craft? o Useful objects o “Strength, power, might, force; Intellectual power, skill, art; An art, trade, or profession requiring special skill and knowledge; esp. a manual art, a handicraft; sometimes applied to any business, calling, or profession by which a livelihood is earned.” Oxford English Dictionary o “Handmade items, esp. domestic or decorative objects; handicrafts.” Oxford English Dictionary The Myth of Authenticity o “In the hope that someday America may live her own life in her own buildings, in her own way, that is, that we may make the best of what we have for what it honestly is or may become, I have endeavored in this work to establish a harmonious relationship between ground plan and elevation of these buildings, considering the one as a solution and the other an expression of the conditions of a problem of which the whole is a project.” Frank Lloyd Wright Ordinary domestic life o Cooking o Farming Not concerned with forms that are foreign to region Rejection of historicism o Taking historic form and applying modern elements History vs. tradition Jean Sibelius o Violin o Finlandia 1899 Part of Finland’s development of national identity Béla Bartók o Local folk songs James Whitecomb Riley o Poet Vernacular Mark Twain o Uses language of region Britain Philip Webb and William Morris o Philip Webb and William Morris, Red House, Kent (England) 1859 Seeking authenticity in local materials Pitched roofs Narrow windows Not looking for something new Not looking for modern forms Looking for forms influenced by tradition Unity of house with landscape Exploited eternal types Hearth (fireplace) o Center of domestic life Inglenook o Alcove off of living area 2 benches facing one another Very intimate setting C. F. A. Voysey o C. F. A. Voysey, Greyfriars, Surrey (England), 1896 o Light in vernacular design o Local details Windows Chimneys Gutters Long eaves o Simplicity in rural life o C.F.A. Voysey, Broad Leys, Windermere (England). (188 Edwin Lutyens o Practicality in local traditions o Individuality of individual and the site o Tigbourne Court, Surrey England, 1898 Steep pitched roof Long eaves Use of local, natural materials o Hill House Helensburgh (Scotland), 19021903 Charles Rennie Mackintosh o Sees building as a total work of art Designs everything as one whole o Glasgow School of Art, Glasgow, 18971909 (slide id) Rural prototypes Elements of Scottish baronial halls The American Midwest Natural forms of the existing landscape Exclusively American Finds authenticity in: o Industry o Ornamentation Inspired by natural vegetative forms o New building types o Rationalism H. H. Richardson o Known for highly rustic features o Ames Gate Lodge, North Easton (Massachusetts), 18801882 Linked to location Arch As eternal prototype Daniel Burnham o The Rookery, Chicago, Illinois, 1888 Use of Chicago window Not afraid to use ornamentation o The Reliance Building, Chicago, Illinois, 18901894 Wedded to spirit of Chicago o The Columbian Expo, Chicago Illinois, 1893 Louis Sullivan o Wainwright, St. Louis Missouri, 18901891 o Transportation Building, Chicago, Illinois, 18911893 o Carson Pirie Scott, Chicago, Illinois, 18991904 Chicago window Celebration of new building type o National Farmer’s Bank, Owatonna, Minnesota, 19061908 Eternal types Modern ornamentation Frank Lloyd Wright o Worked for Louis Sullivan o Wright Home and Studio, Oak Park (Illinois) 1893 Masonry material Responding to climate o Chauncey Williams House, River Forest (Illinois), 1895 Celebration of vernacular elements o Winslow House, River Forest (Illinois), 18931894 Real prairie style Horizontal lines Minimized height of chimney Plays up moldings Uses extremely long eave o The Suburban House Project for “A Home in a Prairie Town,” published in Ladies’ Home Journal, 1901 Long overhang Eternal prototypes Hearth is center o Willits House, Highland Park (Illinois), 1902 Art glass as handycraft o Heurtley House, Oak Park (Illinois), 1902 Use of brick Elongated Horizontal window View of the landscape o Robie House, Chicago, 19081910 Extreme overhang Suppression of vertical lines Planes of space as one whole o Unity Temple, Oak Park (Illinois), 19051908 Continuity of interior surfaces o Midway Gardens, Chicago, 1913 Pleasure garden Horizontal planes 2/11/16 The American Southwest Establish regional identity Culture is a very new phenomenon o Some very closely associated with arts and crafts Green and Greene o Gamble House, Pasadena, California, 19071908 Arts and crafts Very close attention to handycraft Cannot be replicated Firmly rooted in southern California tradition Outdoor sleeping spaces Foreign and Local Source Material o Mudejar/Mozarabe Spanish colonial Merger of what happening in Spanish baroque as its being brought over Critical moment o Mission San José, San Antonio, Texas Critical touchpoint in development in architecture in SW o Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue PanamaCalifornia Exhibition, 1915 Pseudo Spanish baroque Important moment o Many middle class and wealthy patron finding style o Irving Gill (18701936) Inspired by use of stucco and wood construction Renovation of the San Diego Mission, San Diego, California Preservation of original Architectural stylings of missions o Minimalism o Reduction of ornament o Fabrication processes Bailey House, La Jolla, California, 1907 Relevant to Franciscan past o Patios Allen House, San Diego, California, 1907 Classical composition ideas Banning House, Los Angeles, California, 1910 Simple materials o Stucco o Wood Dodge House, West Hollywood, California, 19141916 Local forms and coupling with modern forms Part of its place and time The Regional and the Universal Catalonia (Spain) o Vaults glazed in tile o Attempt to discover modernity o Resurgence in Catalonian language, art, and literature o Search for rationalism o The modernization of traditional technologies o Antoni Gaudí, Casa Milá, Barcelona, 1910 Brick vaults o Rafael Guastavino, Bridgemarket, New York, 1909 o Eduardo Torroja, Zarzuela Racecourse, Madrid (1933) o Felix Candela, Los Manantiales Restaurant, Xochimilco, Mexico (1958) Looks like Sydney opera house Scandinavia o Denmark, Sweden, etc. o Eclecticism o Look to Gaudi HH Richardson CFA Boise Edward Bertrum Irving Gill o Unprecedented agility o The influence of H. H. Richardson Critical in Scandinavian modernism H. H. Richardson, Trinity Church, Boston, 18721877 o Lars Sonck St. John’s Church (later Cathedral), Tampere, Finland, 18991907 Clearly inspired in form Richardson o Local materials o Local architecture types Granite Pitched roof o Martin Nyrop Town Hall, Copenhagen, 18921902 City council chamber designed to overlook square o Finland Part of Sweden then trnsfers to become part of Russian empire Independence after WW1 Searching for national identity o Eliel Saarinen Finnish National Museum, Helsinki, 1902. Fresco by Akseli GallenKallela depicts motifs from the Kalevala Eternal prototypes Local types o Pitched roof o Materials Railway Station, Helsinki, 19041914 (slide id) Highly criticized when built Chicago Tribune Tower (never constructed), 1922 Dining Hall, Cranbrook School for Boys, Bloomfield Hills (Michigan), 1928 1929 Gothic styling Sense of craft and modern types Kleinhans Music Hall, Buffalo, 19381940 Simplified geometry Cranbrook Academy of Art, Bloomfield Hills (Michigan), 19381942 First Christian Church, Columbus (Indiana), 19401942 o Erik Gunnar Asplund Transition to regional modernity Large civic monuments o Wood and masonry Woodland Cemetery, Stockholm, 1915 Woodland Chapel, Stockholm, 19181920 (slide id) Pitched roof Dome Classical columns Eternal prototype o pantheon Stockholm Exhibition Building, Stockholm, 1930 Stockholm City Library, Stockholm,19211932 Rotunda as focal point Göteborg City Hall, Göteborg (Sweden), original design 1913, final design 1937 Addition to city hall Contemporary way o Simplified Influential in southern Europe Classicism in Germany and ‘Jura Regionalism’ Classical organization Greece, Rome o Structural systems o Organizational systems o Peter Behrens Establish new classical movement Highly influential to van der Rohe and Le Corbusier Weigand House, Berlin, 19111912 Cornice Doric column o Mies van der Rohe Riehl House, Berlin, 1907 Imbedded in German style Perls House, Berlin, 1911 KrollerMuller House, The Hague 1912 (never built) Modern architecture to be later designed Wolf House, Gubin, Poland, 19251927 High modern o Charles Edouard Jeanneret (later Le Corbusier) Local and regional traditions and forms and looking to couple with modern ideas Fascinated with foreign agenda Villa Fallet, La ChauxdeFonds (Switzerland), 1905 (slide id) Looks like swiss chalet Maison FavreJacot, Le Locle (Switzerland), 1912 Regionalist approach Beginning of classical geometries Villa Schwob, La ChauxdeFonds (Switzerland), 1916 Flat roof Classical cornice Classical geometry Concrete frame
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