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Psych100 Week 2 Notes

by: Alicia Burtha

Psych100 Week 2 Notes PSYC100010

Marketplace > University of Delaware > PSYC100010 > Psych100 Week 2 Notes
Alicia Burtha

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About this Document

These notes cover the week's lecture and part of chapter 2 in the text book.
General Psychology
Ly,Agnes Ruan
Class Notes
udel psych100 introtopsych ly week2
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alicia Burtha on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC100010 at University of Delaware taught by Ly,Agnes Ruan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views.


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Date Created: 02/24/16
PSYCH100 Week 2: 2/15, 2/17, and 2/19 February 15, 2016 iClicker: Patients who are led to believe that a pill will lower blood pressure (but they don’t know it’s actually a sugar pill) experience a drop in blood pressure. This concept is: Mind-body issue This historical event helped give rise to the cognitive revolution in the foundations of psychology: The development of and increasing use of computers (info-processing) In-class notes… Research Methodology Primary goals of science 1. Description – what is going on, describing a behavior/phenomenon a. Descriptive studies 2. Prediction – a. Correlational studies 3. Control – can I isolate this factor, control it, and determine if it solely controls one outcome? a. Experimental studies 4. Explanation – can I say that that factor causes the outcome? (all about making a causal statement) a. Experimental studies Scientific Method 1. Create theory – based off observations (more broad that hypothesis) 2. Hypothesis – based on theory (more specific than a theory) 3. Research – testable hypothesis, test yields data a. Support or fails to support theory Considerations for all types of study designs  Safety  Informed consent  Confidentiality/anonymity February 17, 2016 iClicker… A researcher suggests that presenting possible suspects in a lineup one person at a time instead of in a group would lead to more accurate identification of the true suspect. This statement represents a hypothesis. In class…  Random samples provide a grater likelihood of giving a representative of the population Internal validity – degree to which you are certain that the effects of the outcomes of interest are due to the independent variable  Inside the study, how tightly controlled the variables are External validity – degree to which the findings of the study can generalize to other places and times  Variables measured in real world way  Does it apply to other settings Descriptive studies 1. Naturalistic observation a. Pro – people act the way they are (less bias on the part of the participant), broad view b. Con – target behavior might not occur, farther from study 2. Participative a. 3. Case Study a. Study of one entity bc there is something atypical about them 4. Self-reports a. You reporting on how you feel b. Interview c. Self-serving bias, say things that are socially desirable February 19, 2015 In class notes… Correlational  Examines how two (or more) variables are related/associated as they are  Researcher does not step in to manipulate variables, only measure  2 graphical forms o scatterplot  negative = as one variable goes up, the other variable goes down (opposite direction)  positive = as one variable goes up, the other goes up too (same direction)  directionality problem - can say linked/related, but cannot make causal statement  third variable problem – could be an external variable which affects the other two variables Experimental  a way to make causal claims  experimenter manipulates the independent variables  random sample Chapter 2 Primary goals of science – description, prediction, control, explanation  describe what the phenomenon is, when it will occur, what causes it to occur, and why it occurs  first step in critical thinking is to question everything; ask for definitions scientific method – a systematic and dynamic procedure of observind and measuring phenomena, used to acieve the goals of description, prediction, control, and explanation; involved an interaction among research, theories, and hypotheses research – a scientific process that involves the careful collection of data theory – a model of interconnected ideas or concepts that explains what is observes and makes predictions about future events  should be falseable (able to be proven false) and create a lot of hypotheses hypothesis – a specific, testable prediction, narrower than the theory it is based on 1. form a hypothesis 2. conduct a literature review (review of the scientific literature related to your theory) 3. design a study 4. conduct the study 5. analyze the data 6. report the results replicated – repetition of a research study to confirm the results variable – something that can vary and that a researcher can manipulate, measure, or both independent variable – the variable that gets manipulated dependent variable – variable that gets measured (the outcome after the manipulation) operational definition – a definition that qualifies and quantifies a variable so the variable can be understood objectively descriptive research – research methods that involve observing behavior to describe that behavior objectively and systematically  measuring, recording, counting 3 types of descriptive research methods 1. case study – a descriptive research method that involves the intensive examination of the unusual person or organization a. observing, recording, and describing 2. observational studies: participant observation – a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is involved in the situation naturalistic observation – a type a descriptive study in which the researcher is a passive observer, separated from the situation and making no attempt to change or alter ongoing behavior reactivity – the phenomenon that occurs when knowledge that one is being observed observer bias – systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations experimenter expectancy effect – actual change in the behavior of the people or nonhuman animals being observed that is due to the expectations of the observer self-report methods – methods of data collection in which people are asked to provide information about themselves, such as in surveys or questionnaires correlational studies – method that describes and predicts how variables are naturally related in the real world without any attempts by the researcher to alter them or assign causation between them


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