Note for HWC 204 with Professor Botkin at KU
Note for HWC 204 with Professor Botkin at KU
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by an elite notetaker on Friday February 6, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to a course at Kansas taught by a professor in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.
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Date Created: 02/06/15
Important Issues and Themes to Know 1 How Galileo deals with the claim in the Bible that the earth does not move Western Christian biblical references Psalm 931 Psalm 9610 and 1 Chronicles 1630 include depending on translation text stating that quotthe world is firmly established it cannot be movedquot In the same tradition Psalm 1045 says quotthe LORD set the earth on its foundations it can never be movedquot Further Ecclesiastes 15 states that quotAnd the sun rises and sets and returns to its placequot etc Galileo defended heiocentrism and claimed it was not contrary to those Scripture passages He took Augustine39s position on Scripture not to take every passage literally particularly when the scripture in question is a book of poetry and songs not a book of instructions or history The writers of the Scripture wrote from the perspective of the terrestrial world and from that vantage point the sun does rise and set Galileo declared that scriptural iteraism had no place in scientific inquiry quotInasmuch as the Bible calls for an interpretation differing from the immediate sense of the wordsquot he wrote quotit seems to me that as an authority in mathematical controversy it has very little standing I believe that natural processes which we perceive by careful observation or deduce by cogent demonstration cannot be refuted by passages from the Biblequot Had he halted there all might have been well but he went on to offer his own positions on matters of theology quotThe primary purpose of the Holy Writ is to worship God and save soulsquot he argued his imperious lecturing tone ruffled feathers and in its apparent contempt for the teaching authority of the Church smacked of Protestantism The issue for Galileo was how is sacred Scripture to be interpreted when it speaks of natural phenomena He wrote to Grand Duchess Christina of Tuscany hoping for support from the Medici and declaring that quotnothing physical which senseexperience sets before out eyes or which necessary demonstrations prove to us ought to be called into question much less condemned upon the testimony of Biblical passages which may have some different meaning beneath their wordsquot God s primary purpose in giving us the bible is to lead humans to salvation but he has given us reason and our senses to gain knowledge of nature Since both reason and revelation come from God they cannot conflict when rightly used and understood Galileo appeals with some justification to Aquinas who held the same views at an earlier stage of scientific knowledge The inspired writers of the bible including the author for the Book of Joshua adapted their language to the understanding of ordinary people of their tie when they were referencing to nature To our ordinary observation the sun does rise and set and move across the heavens 2 Aquinas different conceptions of law p46 Aquinas distinguished four kinds of law eternal natural human and divine Eternal law is the decree of God that governs all creation Natural law is the human quotparticipationquot in the eternal law and is discovered by reason Natural law of course is based on quotfirst principlesquot this is the first precept of the law that good is to be done and promoted and evil is to be avoided All other precepts of the natural law are based on this Human law is positive law the natural law applied by governments to societies Divine law is the specially revealed law in the scriptures The eternal law is the rational plan of divine wisdom considered as directing all actions and movementsquot p 46 88 The eternal law for Aquinas is that rational plan by which all creation is ordered the natural law is the way that the human being quotparticipatesquot in the eternal law There are human beings who have the natural light of the intellect p 33 They can discover their ends and act or not act accordingly Natural Law p 4852 For Aquinas there are two key features of the natural law The first is that when we focus on God39s role as the giver of the natural law the natural law is just one aspect of divine providence and so the theory of natural law is from that perspective just one part among others of the theory of divine providence The second is that when we focus on the human39s role as recipient of the natural law the natural law constitutes the principles of practical rationality those principles by which human action is to be judged as reasonable or unreasonable and so the theory of natural law is from that perspective the preeminent part of the theory of practical rationality The notion that the natural law constitutes the basic principles of practical rationality implies for Aquinas both that the precepts of the natural law are universally binding by nature ST aae 94 4 and that the precepts of the natural law are universally knowable by nature Botkin The first precept of Natural Law is to do good and avoid evil The moral truth is First Principle and Self Evident Aquinas compares it to a nonmoral 1st principle the Law of NonContradiction quotSomething cannot be confirmed and denied at the same timequot p 49 BOTKIN Aquinas was no moral relativist there is a single standard of truth and right for everyone which is known by everyonequot Human Law may or may not conform to eternal law but is necessary because some people do not have the right values The order of precepts of natural laws follow the order of natural inclinations P49 DescriptiveFacts PrescriptiveValues Natural ncinations Natural Law Demands Self Preservation 9 teleology arrow 9 Live healthy no suicide Procreation 9 teleology arrow9 have lots of children To know God and live in society 9 teleology arrow 9 seek God make peace Luther s criticism ofthe three walls of the Romanist ls Wall the papal claim that spiritual power the power invested in the clergy by virtue of his office is greater than temporal or secular authority llt is pure invention that pope bishop priests and monks are called the spiritual estate while princes lords artisans and farmer are called the temporal estatequot Response All Christians are truly of the spiritual estate and there is no difference of them except for their office a priest in Christendom is nothing g but an officeholder BOTKIN S NOTES Baptism gospel and faith alone make us spiritual and a Christian people PWC 392a We all have been baptized have the gospel and believe that were saved by faith alone It follows from this that we are all of the spiritual estate we are all truly priests 292b 2quotd Wall is the claim that only the Pope can interpret scripture llSince the Romanists think that the holy spirit never leaves them no matter how ignorant and wicked they are they become bold and decree only what they wantquot They cannot produce a single letter to maintain that only the pope may interpret If the article quotI believe in one holy Christian churchquot is correct then the Pope cannot be the only one that is right BOTKIN There is scriptural evidence against it and none for it 3rd Wall Scriptural authority contradicts the papal claim that the pope alone can convene a council llWhen the Pope acts contrary to the Scriptures it is our duty to stand by the scriptures to reprove him and constrain him according to the word of Christquot The Apostolic council and the Council of Nicaea was neither called nor confirmed by the bishop of Rome but by the emperor Constantine BOTKIN If the Church has the authority it is only to promote the good ts refusal to allow temporal authorities to call a church council does not promote the good What about Constantine Therefore the church cannot legitimately prevent the state from callinga council Machiavelli39s advice on using auxiliary and mercenary troops Machiavelli stands strongly against the use of mercenaries He believes them useless to a ruler because they are undisciplined cowardly and without any loyalty being motivated only by money Machiavelli attributes the Italian city states weakness to their reliance on mercenary armies Machiavelli also warns against using auxiliary forces troops borrowed from an ally because if they win the employer is under their favor and if they lose he is ruined Auxiliary forces are more dangerous than mercenary forces because they are united and controlled by capable leaders who may turn against the employer
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