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Week 5 notes

by: Kavisha Shroff

Week 5 notes Hlth 101

Kavisha Shroff
GPA 3.694

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Chapter 11: weight management
Wellness/Diverse Society
Andrea Brace
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kavisha Shroff on Wednesday February 24, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hlth 101 at Towson University taught by Andrea Brace in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Wellness/Diverse Society in Nursing and Health Sciences at Towson University.

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Date Created: 02/24/16
CHAPTER 11 Weight Management  The human body can be divided into fat-free mass and body fat. Fat-free mass is composed of all the body's non-fat tissues: bone, water, muscle, connective tissue, organ tissues, and teeth.  Essential fat makes up about 3–5% of total body weight in men and about 8–12% in women.  Most of the fat in the body is stored in fat cells, or adipose tissue, located under the skin (subcutaneous fat) and around major organs (visceral fat or intra- abdominal fat).  Overweight is usually defined as total body weight above the recommended range for good health (as determined by large-scale population surveys). Obesity is defined as a more serious degree of overweight.  Body mass index (BMI) is a measure of body weight that is useful for classifying the health risks of body weight if you don't have access to more sophisticated methods. BMI is based on the concept that weight should be proportional to height.  BMI between 18.5 and 24.9 is considered healthy  a person with a BMI of 25 or above is classified as overweight  a person with a BMI of 30 or above is classified as obese.  A person with a BMI below 18.5 is classified as underweight  Body Composition Analysis: The most accurate and direct way to evaluate body composition is to determine percent body fat.  Hydrostatic Weighing and Bod Pod :In hydrostatic (underwater) weighing, a person is submerged and weighed under water. Percent body fat can be calculated from body density. Muscle has a higher density and fat a lower density than water, so people with more fat tend to float and weigh less under water, while lean people tend to sink and weigh more under water. A specialized body composition analysis device called the Bod Pod uses air instead of water. A person sits in a chamber, and computerized pressure sensors determine the amount of air displaced by the person's body.  Skinfold Measurements: The skinfold thickness technique measures the thickness of fat under the skin. Measurements are taken at several sites and plugged into formulas that calculate body fat percentages.  BIOELECTRICAL IMPEDANCE ANALYSIS (BIA): In this method, electrodes are attached to the body and a harmless electrical current is transmitted from electrode to electrode. The electrical conduction through the body favors the path of the fat-free tissues over the fat tissues. A computer can calculate fat percentages from measurements of current.  Abdominal obesity is a primary component of metabolic syndrome and a forewarning of diabetes and heart disease.  About 5–10% of people with diabetes have the more serious form, known as type 1 diabetes. In this type of diabetes, the pancreas produces little or no insulin, so daily doses of insulin are required.  The remaining 90–95% of Americans with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, and the prevalence is rising dramatically. In type 2 diabetes, the pancreas doesn't produce enough insulin, cells are resistant to insulin, or both. This condition is usually diagnosed in people over age 40  A fasting glucose level of 126 mg/dl or higher indicates diabetes; a level of 100– 125 mg/dl indicates pre-diabetes.  Female athlete triad: A condition consisting of three interrelated disorders: abnormal eating patterns (and excessive exercising) followed by lack of menstrual periods (amenorrhea) and decreased bone density (premature osteoporosis). Factors contributing to excess body fat:  Genetic  Physiological PMR- resting metabolic rate the energy required to maintain vital body functions, including respiration, heart rate, body temperature, and blood pressure, while the body is at rest.  Lifestyle factors For weight management, it's better to consume the majority of calories during the day rather than in the evening.  Low-Carbohydrate Diets  Low-Fat Diets  Weight-Loss Programs  Prescription Drugs  Surgery  Body Dysmorphic Disorder (BDD)  Eating disorder :A serious disturbance in eating patterns or eating-related behavior, characterized by a negative  Body image and concerns about body weight or body fat.  Treatment of eating disorders usually involves a combination of psychotherapy and medical management. The therapy may be carried out individually or in a group; sessions involving the entire family may be recommended. A support or self-help group can be a useful adjunct to such treatment. Creating a Personal Weight-Management Plan  Motivation and commitment  Creating a negative energy balance  Physical activity  Diet and eating habits  Self monitoring


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